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GCSE: Northern Ireland 1965-85
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- Marked by Teachers essays 4
Then up to May the twelfth a further twelve leaders were shot including James Connolly. The last rebel to be executed was Roger Casement by hanging on August the third. Overall seventy-five were sentenced to death, and two thousand to imprisonment. This turned public opinion in Ireland against the British government. This created a new wave of anti-British feeling. Nationalist opinion in Ireland was radically changing. Militant Nationalists began to attract sympathy. There were a number of short-term consequences of the rising. A small little known party called Sinn Fein formed in 1905 began to get noticed.
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They believed this because Germans would have to travel up to 1000 miles to reach NI. When the war was under way the government still was slow to react. It wasn't until well into 1941 that the majority of NI was covered by Radar and steps had been taken to introduce anti-aircraft batteries. There were still far from enough anti-defence structures in place to keep NI safe.
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Do you agree that the most difficult problem that led to the conflict between the Catholics and the Protestants is the lack of social interaction?
Meanwhile the Catholic children attended private schools where they were taught Irish history, sport and culture. (Example) Thus, the separation of these two groups of children from young meant the lack of fostering of greater understanding between the two groups. Generations of children grew up not knowing each other and to be distrustful of each other. This created further hostility and distrust and contributed to the conflict between the Protestants and Catholics.
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The events that occurred in Derry on 30 January 1972 became known as Bloody Sunday. Why have these events produced such different historical interpretations?
However, no loyalist paramilitaries were arrested under internment, whereas 1600 nationalists were. This inflamed the nationalist sense of injustice and generated even more hostility between the communities. A civil rights protest march took place on 30th January 1972, though the marchers were confined by the authorities to the Bogside and Creggan areas of Londonderry to prevent possible hooliganism or riot damage taking place in the city centre. The Army was on its guard about the marchers intentions and had erected barriers to confine them. Stones were thrown and insults directed at the soldiers.
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The Nationalists, who are mainly Catholic but not violent, wanted Ireland to be united and free from Britain, whereas Unionists, mainly Protestants- also non-violent, wished to remain part of the UK, who they felt protected them. Religious history was the main catalyst which started the troubles. The political situation in Northern Ireland was always what caused concern. The situation of the political violence was then strengthened by historical events. These events supplied a "back-bone" to the difficult arguments concerning Northern Ireland.
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What are the main differences between the beliefs of the Republicans/Nationalists and the Loyalists/Unionists?
Nationalists see themselves as Irish rather than British, they have their own tradition and their own sports like hurling and Gaelic football they have their own culture, poems and history whereas Unionists see themselves as British they follow the Queen, read British Newspapers and in schools the children study about British history.
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Previous attempts to bring peace to Northern Ireland have failed. What problems will need to be overcome if current peace talks are to succeed?
The people of Ireland also helped with the development of peace among members of paramilitaries and supporters of paramilitaries. There was also influence by the USA president Clinton, as a foreign policy would divert eyes from his sex scandal. The secret talks by the British Government and the IRA and also talks between the Republic and Sinn Fein. This lead to the Downing Street Declaration of 1993 stating the two parties of Ireland could bring about a United Ireland if they so wished.
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The British sentenced 90 people to death, and captured many more who were sent to prisons in Britain. 15 of the people sentenced were actually killed. The actions of the British government did raise concerns. The Protestants were loyal to Britain and many of their men died in supporting Britain's war against the Germans by fighting with side by side with British men. They say the Republicans let them down by fighting against Britain. The Republicans in Ireland saw the people who were murdered as martyrs. The British had gone to far their brutality made the republicans angry and even moderates mostly turned to the Republicans views of removing British control of Ireland.
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The lessons were entirely different from those taught in the Protestant school and this will have probably influenced her views going into her career in politics and probably explains why her actions, which I do not have any details of, caused Protestants to call her a "Fidel Castro in a miniskirt". With her rising to power and with the views that she would have gained from her upbringing, she would have possibly had something to do with the troubles and maybe, seeing as she came to power in 1969, been a leading part in helping the Catholic people of Ireland and Northern Ireland have a voice.
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Only last week the real IRA carried out the gun attack at an Army barracks in Antrim in which two soldiers were killed. They have also been involved in many other incidents causing several deaths. Another difference between them is that the Nationalists and Unionists have political groups. The major Unionist political groups are the Democratic Unionist Party and the Ulster Unionist party, otherwise known as the DUP and UUP. The major Nationalist political groups are the Social and Democratic Labour Party (SDLP)
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Months later a victim died from his injuries, making 14 deaths. But what exactly happened on this tragic day? Even now we still do not fully understand what happened, but it definitely worsened relationships between Nationalists and the British government. The march was a peaceful demonstration, but ended up with 14 dead (7 of which were teenagers). People had no choice but to march, as they had no other ways to express their views. After Partition, the Special Powers Act was created, which was written for all people in Northern Ireland.
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Protestant preachers were influencing Protestant's on their ideas and feeling on Catholic people. Preachers such as Dr. Henry Cooke were completely against the Catholic people living in Belfast and they would preach to people about this. 'Which led to increasing polarisation between the communities' was reflected by the drift into religious areas, this process was nearly complete in the 1850s. Despite the continuous rioting, Belfast's catholic businessmen continued to prosper. Businessmen such as Andrew Joseph McKenna, a news paper editor who launched his own newspaper in 1868 is an example a of catholic business men that had had prospered in the 19th century.
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As well as executions, the British also responded to the rising through harassment and internment of 3,000 suspected republicans and a threat to introduce conscription. Initially the Irish were against the rising but with such British response the public changed their minds, in favour for the republicans. The rebels who had died in the rising became martyrs to the Irish republicans. Today the 1916 rebels are seen as heroes by the nationalists and especially by republicans, republicans believe that they are the true heirs of the 1916 rebels, though they do not glorify them memory of the leader, and that the government of the ROI betrayed the ideas of the 1916 by accepting the Anglo-Irish peace treaty created in 1921.
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were fighting a war and that if they were to give in to the British authorities they would be destroying and disrespecting all the work they and their forefathers had done in their fight for a united Ireland. Though this did not mean the British Prime minister saw it like this, she regarded the IRA's and INLA's violent campaigns as criminal and terrorist, famously declaring "Crime is crime is crime; it is not political and Britain should not negotiate with terrorists" Bobby Sands was the first to start the hunger strike in 1981, he had originally lived in Rathcoole in Northern Ireland but after loyalist intimidation they were forced to move to a catholic area in West Belfast.
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Another man-made cause for global warming is world population the more people on the planet the more food that needs to be produced. Most countries import food from other countries like the u.k import bananas like Jamaica which mean we have to transport them by plane or boat which both give out pollutants. Since CO2 contributes to global warming, the increase in population makes the problem worse because we breathe out CO2. Also, the trees that convert our CO2 to oxygen are being demolished because we're using the land that we cut the trees down from as property for our homes and buildings.
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He wished to improve conditions for RC's and to negotiate with RC politicians. Despite reforms, RC's didn't benefit much but still expected change which led to a crisis of rising expectations. Civil rights groups like the campaign for social justice protested peacefully for an end to discrimination. In 1964, The UK Prime Minister, Harold Wilson, was aware of the situation RC's faced in NI by seeing RC protests and pressurized O'Neill to grant civil rights otherwise funds to NI would decrease. O'Neill was unable to act due to internal pressure from his own party which was against the idea.
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The cheif agents were situated near the boarder. They saw some of the greatest violence of the period."Internment without trial" or "operation Demetrius" was introduced on 9 August 1971 because of increasing levels of violence. It involved the arrest and internment without charge of people accused of being involved in Parimilitary groups. All marches and parades were banned. 21 people were being killed in 3 days of rioting following the introduction of "internment without charge" On 10th August Paul Challenor was the first soldier to be killed by the provisional IRA in Derry.
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Northern Ireland was a state dominated by Protestants, this meant Catholics were out numbered by the majority of Protestants, however in some parts of Northern Ireland there were more catholics than Protestants, places like London Derry City, Tyrone and Fermanagh, when it came to election time, catholics were not fairly represented because of Gerrymandering, this was the process by which constituency boundaries were redrawn to favour the Protestant population, for example, In the 1920s and 1930s, the Ulster Unionist Party created electoral boundaries for the Londonderry County Borough Council to ensure election of a Unionist council in a city where
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In February and March 1993 the Provisional IRA committed acts of terrorism in Warrington. Explain how these atrocities helped shape attitudes of both section of Society in Northern Ireland towards the peace process
During the attacks two young boys were killed. Timothy Parry aged 12 and Jonathon Ball aged 3 were killed in the blast. However, may more were wounded - some people even had to have limbs amputated. The majority of Irish Unionists and Loyalists were disgusted at the atrocities carried out by the Provisional IRA. The killing of the two boys pushed them towards a peaceful resolution. A letter in a Newspaper at the time shows the feelings of the Irish Unionists and Loyalists towards the nationalists: '...Us Irish are not all like the people that did the dreadful bombing in
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If we look in the 16th and 17th centuries we see that English monarchs sent Protestants settlers over to Ireland, so they could take land away from Irish Catholics and settle themselves over there. So therefore, Bloody Sunday is just another example of the conflict between the British and the Irish. Partition is the other reason which might have led of Bloody Sunday happening. Because the Unionists (Protestant) were against the home rule and wanted to be in part of Britain.
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How did Protestants explain the social, economic and political differences between Catholics and Protestants?
Some Unionists claimed that this kept old prejudices alive, leading to many of the differences between the communities. These actions also increased the Protestant fear that, if Catholics were given too much freedom, then they would reintroduce Irish traditions into Northern Ireland; threatening the Protestant's British lifestyle.
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However, in 1968, the RUC prevented many of their demonstrations, adding to the discontent of the Catholics. This restlessness caused a re-emergence of sectarian tension, which had eased during the prosperity of the 1940s and 1950s. The tension prompted the British government to push Terrence O'Neill to pass anti-discrimination laws, which he proposed in October 1968. The reforms had been widely anticipated by NICRA, who had hoped that he might reform the biased voting system in Northern Ireland; however, the reforms led to more tension.
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Background information What is Northern Ireland like today? Northern Ireland is a small place, no larger than Yorkshire, and with a population of around about 1.5 million, less than a city like Birmingham or Glasgow. At present Ireland is divided into 2 parts: The North- Sometimes called Ulster is part of the United Kingdom. This means that it is ruled by the British Parliament in London, the Queen is the head of state. The south- It's an independent country with its own Government and Parliament in Dublin.
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Farmers had to increase producitivity and the rural Ulster was well fit for the task. The Americans needed air bases in Europe for their bombing missions. Different locations were to be used and the Ministry of Defence checked different locations for their suitability. Ardboe was chosen for one of these sites because it had flat land, near water, across to Europe, across to the Atlantic and also it could be easily converted to an air base as it had flat land.
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