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GCSE: Northern Ireland 1965-85
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This is particularly interesting because the majority of people in Fermanagh were Catholics, hence highlighting the extent of their discrimination. The Sunday Times also wrote that in Derry "of 177 salaried employees, 145 earning �124,424 - were Protestant, and only 32 - earning �20,420 - were Catholic" showing the dramatic differences in wages as well as representation between Catholics and Protestants. With the former being far more poorly paid, one can clearly see a significant amount of discrimination against Catholics in a different respect.
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Many of the leaders were found guilty of treason as they were fighting against British forces while the First World War was taking place, meaning that the British troops could not fight in the war. So the leaders of the Easter Rising were shot by firing squads, however this increased support for Home Rule as people such as James Connolly were shot while suffering from gangrene, which would have killed them anyway. These people were then seen as Irish Martyrs.
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Ireland was heading towards a civil war between Ulster Unionists and Irish Nationalists/Republicans BUT the start of World War 1 prevented this. 2. Irish Attitudes Towards World War1 a. Constitutional Nationalists- John Redmond was determined to help the war effort. He thought that if Irish Nationalists fought for Britain, Ireland would be rewarded at the end of the war. But Redmond also believed that the war was a war for small nations. Germany ha invaded Belgium, and like Ireland, Belgium was a small, Catholic country, which Redmond thought Irish Nationalists should help.
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Catholics felt like they were being treated badly by the Northern Ireland Government, which was named Stormont after the famous buildings in which the Government was situated. Stormont was set up in 1922 by Irish Protestants as the Northern Ireland government after partition. It was run by the Northern Ireland Government, who enforced British laws. The first prime minister of Northern Ireland was Sir James Craig, who was later known as Lord Craigavon. He famously said "A Protestant Parliament for a Protestant People".
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This upset the Catholics and people started to make their own private, but much smaller, armies and started to attack the Protestants and burn their property. There had always been a lot of conflict between the Catholics and the Protestants as well. For example, the Battle of the Boyne happened around the times of King James I in 1690. The Protestants won this particular battle and because of this victory it led to annual marches to celebrate their win. Some of the events only happened about fifty years before but could also be blamed for the increase in violence that escalated over the years.
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How did Protestant Politicians explain the social, economic and political differences between Catholics and Protestants?
A few famous Protestant Politicians, other than Sir James Craig were Reverend Ian Paisley, Basil Brooke, and Terence O'Neill. Ian Paisley was a very strict Protestant and believed that Catholicism was Satanic, and believed that the Catholic leaders were the Anti-Christ. Because he was the leader of the Free Presbyterian Church which he set up in 1951, he preached a lot of negative information about them as well, which caused Protestants to hate Catholics even more, which caused more arguments and violence. Basil Brooke was the third Prime Minister (PM) of Northern Ireland and before that he was a Cabinet Minister.
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After the Protestants formed, some joined but most remained Catholic. Although most countries were a mix of the two. In 1534, England became a Protestant country whilst Ireland remained Catholic. English monarchs wanted Ireland to change too but they did not possess a large enough army to force them to. This change to England was due to Henry VIII and his reign but mainly for purely selfish personal reasons, as the Pope would not let him divorce and so the two fell out and the Roman Catholic Church took the worst of it and so to get what he wanted, Henry became head of the Church of England and therefore declared England a protestant country.
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What are the main differences between the beliefs of the Republicans/Nationalists and the Loyalists/Unionists?
Those who disagree, who want a united independent Ireland, are called Nationalists or for those that are extreme Nationalists, Republicans. Unionists generally want Northern Ireland to remain under British control. They do not want to unite with the Republic for two main reasons relating to finance and religion. Many of the Unionists believe that in order to retain good trade links with the United Kingdom and Europe; they must keep a harmonious relationship with them, and remain part of it.
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The protestant landowners became known as the Protestant Ascendancy, whose power was increased following the Jacobite wars of the late 17th Century. William of Orange's decisive action at the Battle of the Boyne caused the protestant ascendancy to prevail over Jacobite forces. William's robust terms forced the Irish Catholic community to be systematically excluded from power based on land ownership and the enactment of a series of laws to keep Irish peoples subjugated under mainland rule. Amongst the penal laws introduced were: * Exclusion of Catholics from most public offices * On a death by a Catholic, a legatee could
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They don't want to be treated unfairly. The other half of the nationalists who are republicans want no link with the UK at all. They want to be totally separated. Another difference within the nationalists is the SDLP who want to use peaceful methods of achieving their aims and the IRA and INLA who use violence. There are differences within the unionists. One difference is that the Ulster Unionist Party uses non violence and peaceful methods to achieve its aims whereas the Ulster Defence Association and the Ulster Volunteer Force use violence, bombs and scare tactics to achieve their aims.
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How much Progress had been made in resolving the Political, Economic and Social causes of conflict in Northern Ireland by 1985?
This agreement set up an Intergovernmental conference, where the Northern Ireland Secretary and the Irish foreign minister would meet regularly to cooperate on Security, political and legal issues. This was progress because it now meant that the IRA would have a harder time avoiding official forces, and should lead to a reduction in levels if violence. Another step in the right direction was the attempted reforms, such as the disbandment of the B-Specials in 1969. This was huge progress because it now meant that the Catholics felt far less threatened by the constant violence and torment the B specials struck on the ordinary Catholics of Ireland.
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as well setting up their own private army. With the Home Rule Agreement set to become law in the autumn of 1914 and Ireland looking as though it was on the brink of civil war; the only saving grace came in the form of the outbreak of World War 1. Moderate Nationalists see themselves as Irish believing in some form of Irish independence, like all Nationalists. Though they differ from the other nationalists as they consider moral force the best means in which to get what they want; therefore they use peaceful and democratic ways which are legal.
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In 1926, the senior Unionist minister Lord Londonderry tried to get Protestant and Catholic children educated together. He resigned when his plans were blocked by protests which were led by the Catholic Church and supported by Presbyterians [Protestant]. Partition created a large nationalist Catholic minority in Northern Ireland, this minority felt isolated in the new state when it was first formed. There was huge distrust on both sides. The Unionists didn't make much effort into building new bridges with the Nationalists, as the Unionists felt that the Nationalists wanted to determine the new state whereas the nationalists felt the Unionists wanted to exclude them from having power.
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Source A There have been many interpretations about what had happened on that day of Sunday. Sources A and B are extracts from newspapers. They were both written on the same day, yet they have entirely differing viewpoints. Source A is taken from The Daily Mail, which is a conservative newspaper, so therefore it is more likely to be in favour of the opinions of the British Army. When reading it you get the impression that the paratroopers did act in a responsible manner, because they claimed that they were fired upon first and that they had the situation under control although this is not the same perspective of most Irish people.
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Catholic children were not taught anything about Catholicism, they were only taught about Protestantism. Children grew up believing that Catholics were evil and the Protestant religion was the way forward. Another long term tension was The Catholic protest movements in the 1960s. The Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association (NICRA) was introduced which created a lot of tension in Northern Ireland because it wanted to give Catholics equal rights which would mean that the Protestants would not have the upper-hand in society.
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She said that the protestants were different and that they were educated differently to Catholics. Both Protestants and Catholics were educated differently with their own group being made out as superior to the other. This source was published in 1969 which is the year when the troubles began and its also a secondary source. This source is unreliable because it's the opinion of a catholic teacher and therefore making it almost certainly bias. The source has its limitations because it doesn't say that Bernadette became the leading member of the civil rights movement during the 1969 and at only the tender age of 21 became the youngest female to enter the House of Commons when she won the mid-Ulster election.
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This was important because it meant that England was being saved from being attacked by Spain. This also meant that the tension between the two religions grew even more. It led to an easy partition of Ireland because the Protestants had settled in Ulster. A little later, the Battle of the Boyne took place. The two sides were James II, who the Catholics supported, and William of Orange, who had the Protestants on his side! William ended up winning the battle and decided to take drastic measures against the Catholics incase they decide to attack him and his followers.
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This created hatred against the British resulting in more moderate Nationalists joining the war. The Nationalist short-term affects were that they were outraged; most of them did not even support it. The execution of the leaders without any trial led to distrust and revulsion. James Conolly who was already dying was also executed without trial, a lot of people considered this inhumane. This made people think differently about the leaders. It made them Martyrs and heroes. The executions made more moderates turn to extremists, many now turned to Sinn Fein and an independent Ireland rather than wait for home rule.
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Previous attempts to bring peace to Northern Ireland have failed. What problems need to be overcome if the current peace initiative is to succeed?
Also, many of those held during internment were subjected to conditions bordering on torture. This is shown in a cartoon that comments on the inhuman treatment suffered by those held under internment. In 1972 a Nationalist protest march on 30th June, led to 'Bloody Sunday'; when 13 anti-internment marchers were shot by the British army. This led to further divisions; and the formation of several loyalist parties, such as the UDA, only intensified violence. The protest marches that sparked 'Bloody Sunday' were against announcements that, said that, internees would be held over Christmas. During the protest the British Army started shooting.
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After this, and the violence at the Londonderry civil rights march on 5th October 1968, the (supposedly impartial) RUC, seen as a brutal, biased force discriminating against Catholics, was trusted even less. The 1968-1969 civil rights marches, like N.I.C.R.A.'s (on 5th October 1968) and People's Democracy's (on 1st-3rd January 1969), all resulted in violence. The Bogside violence was triggered by the Apprentice Boys' march on 12th August 1969 (held to commemorate the actions of 13 Protestant Londonderry apprentice boys in 1689). Following failed attempts by a Nationalist leader to ban it, the peaceful march resulted in riots when both sides threw missiles at each other.
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However, the troops were finding it impossible to defeat the IRA. To do this, Britain's military advisers had said that they would need at least 100,000 more troops and �100 million. But with Britain's economic crisis, Lloyd George could not afford these requirements. He needed a cheaper remedy to keep the peace in Ireland. After two rejections from the House of Parliament in London, the Home Rule bill (which stated that Ireland would rule itself from its own parliament in Dublin while still remaining part of the British Empire)
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How did Protestant politicians explain the social, economic and political differences between Catholic and Protestant?
This is also very discriminative because this would be a cause of some of the unemployment in the Catholics because he is telling the Protestant employers to not employ Catholics. This changed when Terence O'Neill came to power because he was a moderate Unionist. This changed when Terence O'Neill came to power because he was a moderate Unionist. Terence O'Neill had a different approach to politics than there had been in Northern Ireland. Even though Terence O'Neill was a Protestant politician he looked at how the Catholics were being treated differently.
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As you can see in source 'A', the Orangemen wear orange neck-pieces to celebrate William of Orange's and Protestants as a whole's success. The battle of the Boyne is celebrated because of its victory over Catholics. It therefore represents Protestant ascendancy and supremacy over the Catholics and the march takes place to demonstrate this power as a way of saying 'we have the power to do this, so we will'. This also explains why the march still continues year after year and follows the same route through Catholic territory because if it did stop or redirect for whatever reason it would undermine their authority, making them appear weak and the Catholics look as if their power is increasing.
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Unlike the Power Sharing Executive, this effort did not fail but, similarly to the Anglo Irish Agreement, it was not effective enough to have a lasting influence. The Good Friday Agreement, learning from the mistakes of the previous attempts at peace, would therefore have to have a large impact to have a lasting effect and also satisfy all groups in order to avoid upset which will result in retaliation, making the treaty ineffective. The Good Friday Agreement involved setting up a committee of 108 members, of which all key decisions would go through, requiring consent from both groups.
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What are the main differences between the beliefs of the Republicans/Nationalists and the Loyalists/Unionists?
Religion has always played a part of the conflict in Northern Ireland. It was a main cause for the battle of the Boyne. This historic Irish war is celebrated by the orange order each year. The battle of the Boyne is known by many as the defeat of the Catholics over the protestant. After the battle of the Boyne Protestants took control of the power in Ireland, with this power they stripped the Catholics of their power by use of the penal laws, giving Protestants preferential treatment. This caused much hatred between he two groups.
- Word count: 1117