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GCSE: Northern Ireland 1965-85
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The Irish strongly held this against the British. The main short term cause was the emergence of the three paramilitary groups. These were the Irish Volunteers, the IRB and Irish Citizen Army. The Irish Volunteers consisted of ten thousand members and the leader was Eoin Mac Neill. The IRB were very small and possibly had one hundred members, they were run by Patrick Pearse and The Irish Citizen Army also had around one hundred members there leader was James Connolly.
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These riots were not unprovoked. Tension had been growing in the surrounding area for some time and the events outside of Holy Cross were a result of the growing hostility that was felt between the two sides. Both the Protestants and the Catholics felt threatened by each other, and neither wanted to show any weakness. There were a number of short term causes for what happened outside of Holy Cross. The first of these was the fact that there were the two separate religious communities, the Protestants and the Catholics, living in such close proximity to each other, both communities
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as well setting up their own private army. With the Home Rule Agreement set to become law in the autumn of 1914 and Ireland looking as though it was on the brink of civil war; the only saving grace came in the form of the outbreak of World War 1. Moderate Nationalists see themselves as Irish believing in some form of Irish independence, like all Nationalists. Though they differ from the other nationalists as they consider moral force the best means in which to get what they want; therefore they use peaceful and democratic ways which are legal.
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Only last week the real IRA carried out the gun attack at an Army barracks in Antrim in which two soldiers were killed. They have also been involved in many other incidents causing several deaths. Another difference between them is that the Nationalists and Unionists have political groups. The major Unionist political groups are the Democratic Unionist Party and the Ulster Unionist party, otherwise known as the DUP and UUP. The major Nationalist political groups are the Social and Democratic Labour Party (SDLP)
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In 1959, Unemployment was rapidly increasing which mainly affected the Catholics. They knew they were being discriminated upon over unemployment but the wasn't a lot they could do about it because the Catholics had no political power. Ian Paisley is the founder of the 'Democratic Unionist Party' and has played a central part in Northern Ireland politics since the 1960's. His followers formed 'Ulster Protestant Action' and they believed that Protestants should be kept in employment in times of depression in preference to their fellow Catholic workers.
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It was only meant to be a short term solution to give everyone chance to find a reasonable solution that t both religions and the British would be happy with. Direct rule was not a success for the British government as it was not a suitable solution for the two religions as neither wanted to be run by the British and was it destined to cause problems from the beginning. In 1973 after direct rule had failed the British Government Proposed another policy called power sharing and this then began to take action in 1974.
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They were also turned against British rule in 1918 when conscription was introduced. This enabled Irishmen to be forced to fight in World War One for Britain against their own will. The medium term consequence of this was that in the 1918 election many of these ordinary Catholics voted for Sinn Fein and the parliamentary nationalists Sinn Feins members of parliament then decided to set up their own parliament right there in Dublin in 1919 and refused to go to London.
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Months later a victim died from his injuries, making 14 deaths. But what exactly happened on this tragic day? Even now we still do not fully understand what happened, but it definitely worsened relationships between Nationalists and the British government. The march was a peaceful demonstration, but ended up with 14 dead (7 of which were teenagers). People had no choice but to march, as they had no other ways to express their views. After Partition, the Special Powers Act was created, which was written for all people in Northern Ireland.
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In 1926, the senior Unionist minister Lord Londonderry tried to get Protestant and Catholic children educated together. He resigned when his plans were blocked by protests which were led by the Catholic Church and supported by Presbyterians [Protestant]. Partition created a large nationalist Catholic minority in Northern Ireland, this minority felt isolated in the new state when it was first formed. There was huge distrust on both sides. The Unionists didn't make much effort into building new bridges with the Nationalists, as the Unionists felt that the Nationalists wanted to determine the new state whereas the nationalists felt the Unionists wanted to exclude them from having power.
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With What Success Has The British Government Tried To Deal With The Irish Troubles In The Years Since 1972?
Direct Rule helped by creating the UDR (Ulster Defence Regiment) which was an organisation designed to protect Northern Ireland from terrorists, the members were from both religious back grounds and it succeeded in restoring minimal amounts of peace and lasted for 25 years. However near the end the violence started again, even though throughout this action violence had accrued on both sides, this time there was a definite increase. The unionist set up yet another paramilitary the UDA (Ulster Defence Association), this meant other paramilitaries and even members of the general public felt the need to defend its self and fight back.
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Which Of The Following Events Has Had The Biggest Impact On The History Of The Conflict In Ireland? Easter Rising 1916, Deployment Of Troops 1969, Bloody Sunday 1972
were both killed in the event. The creation of these Martyrs led to the yearly celebration of their deaths, which in turn led to Protestants rebelling and celebrating their own events the most famous of which is the anniversary of William of Orange (King William the iii of England) who many Protestants heralded as a champion of their faith as he punished Catholics. This then led to a lot more violence between Catholics and Protestants leaving David Lloyd George no choice but to send the Black and Tans in, to control the violence.
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Protestant preachers were influencing Protestant's on their ideas and feeling on Catholic people. Preachers such as Dr. Henry Cooke were completely against the Catholic people living in Belfast and they would preach to people about this. 'Which led to increasing polarisation between the communities' was reflected by the drift into religious areas, this process was nearly complete in the 1850s. Despite the continuous rioting, Belfast's catholic businessmen continued to prosper. Businessmen such as Andrew Joseph McKenna, a news paper editor who launched his own newspaper in 1868 is an example a of catholic business men that had had prospered in the 19th century.
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As well as executions, the British also responded to the rising through harassment and internment of 3,000 suspected republicans and a threat to introduce conscription. Initially the Irish were against the rising but with such British response the public changed their minds, in favour for the republicans. The rebels who had died in the rising became martyrs to the Irish republicans. Today the 1916 rebels are seen as heroes by the nationalists and especially by republicans, republicans believe that they are the true heirs of the 1916 rebels, though they do not glorify them memory of the leader, and that the government of the ROI betrayed the ideas of the 1916 by accepting the Anglo-Irish peace treaty created in 1921.
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were fighting a war and that if they were to give in to the British authorities they would be destroying and disrespecting all the work they and their forefathers had done in their fight for a united Ireland. Though this did not mean the British Prime minister saw it like this, she regarded the IRA's and INLA's violent campaigns as criminal and terrorist, famously declaring "Crime is crime is crime; it is not political and Britain should not negotiate with terrorists" Bobby Sands was the first to start the hunger strike in 1981, he had originally lived in Rathcoole in Northern Ireland but after loyalist intimidation they were forced to move to a catholic area in West Belfast.
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Another man-made cause for global warming is world population the more people on the planet the more food that needs to be produced. Most countries import food from other countries like the u.k import bananas like Jamaica which mean we have to transport them by plane or boat which both give out pollutants. Since CO2 contributes to global warming, the increase in population makes the problem worse because we breathe out CO2. Also, the trees that convert our CO2 to oxygen are being demolished because we're using the land that we cut the trees down from as property for our homes and buildings.
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Source A There have been many interpretations about what had happened on that day of Sunday. Sources A and B are extracts from newspapers. They were both written on the same day, yet they have entirely differing viewpoints. Source A is taken from The Daily Mail, which is a conservative newspaper, so therefore it is more likely to be in favour of the opinions of the British Army. When reading it you get the impression that the paratroopers did act in a responsible manner, because they claimed that they were fired upon first and that they had the situation under control although this is not the same perspective of most Irish people.
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Catholic children were not taught anything about Catholicism, they were only taught about Protestantism. Children grew up believing that Catholics were evil and the Protestant religion was the way forward. Another long term tension was The Catholic protest movements in the 1960s. The Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association (NICRA) was introduced which created a lot of tension in Northern Ireland because it wanted to give Catholics equal rights which would mean that the Protestants would not have the upper-hand in society.
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She said that the protestants were different and that they were educated differently to Catholics. Both Protestants and Catholics were educated differently with their own group being made out as superior to the other. This source was published in 1969 which is the year when the troubles began and its also a secondary source. This source is unreliable because it's the opinion of a catholic teacher and therefore making it almost certainly bias. The source has its limitations because it doesn't say that Bernadette became the leading member of the civil rights movement during the 1969 and at only the tender age of 21 became the youngest female to enter the House of Commons when she won the mid-Ulster election.
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He wished to improve conditions for RC's and to negotiate with RC politicians. Despite reforms, RC's didn't benefit much but still expected change which led to a crisis of rising expectations. Civil rights groups like the campaign for social justice protested peacefully for an end to discrimination. In 1964, The UK Prime Minister, Harold Wilson, was aware of the situation RC's faced in NI by seeing RC protests and pressurized O'Neill to grant civil rights otherwise funds to NI would decrease. O'Neill was unable to act due to internal pressure from his own party which was against the idea.
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This was important because it meant that England was being saved from being attacked by Spain. This also meant that the tension between the two religions grew even more. It led to an easy partition of Ireland because the Protestants had settled in Ulster. A little later, the Battle of the Boyne took place. The two sides were James II, who the Catholics supported, and William of Orange, who had the Protestants on his side! William ended up winning the battle and decided to take drastic measures against the Catholics incase they decide to attack him and his followers.
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This created hatred against the British resulting in more moderate Nationalists joining the war. The Nationalist short-term affects were that they were outraged; most of them did not even support it. The execution of the leaders without any trial led to distrust and revulsion. James Conolly who was already dying was also executed without trial, a lot of people considered this inhumane. This made people think differently about the leaders. It made them Martyrs and heroes. The executions made more moderates turn to extremists, many now turned to Sinn Fein and an independent Ireland rather than wait for home rule.
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The cheif agents were situated near the boarder. They saw some of the greatest violence of the period."Internment without trial" or "operation Demetrius" was introduced on 9 August 1971 because of increasing levels of violence. It involved the arrest and internment without charge of people accused of being involved in Parimilitary groups. All marches and parades were banned. 21 people were being killed in 3 days of rioting following the introduction of "internment without charge" On 10th August Paul Challenor was the first soldier to be killed by the provisional IRA in Derry.
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Northern Ireland was a state dominated by Protestants, this meant Catholics were out numbered by the majority of Protestants, however in some parts of Northern Ireland there were more catholics than Protestants, places like London Derry City, Tyrone and Fermanagh, when it came to election time, catholics were not fairly represented because of Gerrymandering, this was the process by which constituency boundaries were redrawn to favour the Protestant population, for example, In the 1920s and 1930s, the Ulster Unionist Party created electoral boundaries for the Londonderry County Borough Council to ensure election of a Unionist council in a city where
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In February and March 1993 the Provisional IRA committed acts of terrorism in Warrington. Explain how these atrocities helped shape attitudes of both section of Society in Northern Ireland towards the peace process
During the attacks two young boys were killed. Timothy Parry aged 12 and Jonathon Ball aged 3 were killed in the blast. However, may more were wounded - some people even had to have limbs amputated. The majority of Irish Unionists and Loyalists were disgusted at the atrocities carried out by the Provisional IRA. The killing of the two boys pushed them towards a peaceful resolution. A letter in a Newspaper at the time shows the feelings of the Irish Unionists and Loyalists towards the nationalists: '...Us Irish are not all like the people that did the dreadful bombing in
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Previous attempts to bring peace to Northern Ireland have failed. What problems need to be overcome if the current peace initiative is to succeed?
Also, many of those held during internment were subjected to conditions bordering on torture. This is shown in a cartoon that comments on the inhuman treatment suffered by those held under internment. In 1972 a Nationalist protest march on 30th June, led to 'Bloody Sunday'; when 13 anti-internment marchers were shot by the British army. This led to further divisions; and the formation of several loyalist parties, such as the UDA, only intensified violence. The protest marches that sparked 'Bloody Sunday' were against announcements that, said that, internees would be held over Christmas. During the protest the British Army started shooting.
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