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GCSE: Northern Ireland 1965-85
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If we look in the 16th and 17th centuries we see that English monarchs sent Protestants settlers over to Ireland, so they could take land away from Irish Catholics and settle themselves over there. So therefore, Bloody Sunday is just another example of the conflict between the British and the Irish. Partition is the other reason which might have led of Bloody Sunday happening. Because the Unionists (Protestant) were against the home rule and wanted to be in part of Britain.
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How did Protestants explain the social, economic and political differences between Catholics and Protestants?
Some Unionists claimed that this kept old prejudices alive, leading to many of the differences between the communities. These actions also increased the Protestant fear that, if Catholics were given too much freedom, then they would reintroduce Irish traditions into Northern Ireland; threatening the Protestant's British lifestyle.
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However, in 1968, the RUC prevented many of their demonstrations, adding to the discontent of the Catholics. This restlessness caused a re-emergence of sectarian tension, which had eased during the prosperity of the 1940s and 1950s. The tension prompted the British government to push Terrence O'Neill to pass anti-discrimination laws, which he proposed in October 1968. The reforms had been widely anticipated by NICRA, who had hoped that he might reform the biased voting system in Northern Ireland; however, the reforms led to more tension.
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After this, and the violence at the Londonderry civil rights march on 5th October 1968, the (supposedly impartial) RUC, seen as a brutal, biased force discriminating against Catholics, was trusted even less. The 1968-1969 civil rights marches, like N.I.C.R.A.'s (on 5th October 1968) and People's Democracy's (on 1st-3rd January 1969), all resulted in violence. The Bogside violence was triggered by the Apprentice Boys' march on 12th August 1969 (held to commemorate the actions of 13 Protestant Londonderry apprentice boys in 1689). Following failed attempts by a Nationalist leader to ban it, the peaceful march resulted in riots when both sides threw missiles at each other.
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However, the troops were finding it impossible to defeat the IRA. To do this, Britain's military advisers had said that they would need at least 100,000 more troops and �100 million. But with Britain's economic crisis, Lloyd George could not afford these requirements. He needed a cheaper remedy to keep the peace in Ireland. After two rejections from the House of Parliament in London, the Home Rule bill (which stated that Ireland would rule itself from its own parliament in Dublin while still remaining part of the British Empire)
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Background information What is Northern Ireland like today? Northern Ireland is a small place, no larger than Yorkshire, and with a population of around about 1.5 million, less than a city like Birmingham or Glasgow. At present Ireland is divided into 2 parts: The North- Sometimes called Ulster is part of the United Kingdom. This means that it is ruled by the British Parliament in London, the Queen is the head of state. The south- It's an independent country with its own Government and Parliament in Dublin.
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So if you were a Protestant company owner you might not want any Catholics working for you because they could be the people who stop people investing in you. Therefore if you were a Catholic seeking to find a job it would be about 100 times harder than if you were a Protestant. To strengthen this point "In Londonderry, an area with a Catholic majority, the highest-ranking Catholic in the education department was the official in charge of school meals."
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How did Protestant politicians explain the social, economic and political differences between Catholic and Protestant?
This is also very discriminative because this would be a cause of some of the unemployment in the Catholics because he is telling the Protestant employers to not employ Catholics. This changed when Terence O'Neill came to power because he was a moderate Unionist. This changed when Terence O'Neill came to power because he was a moderate Unionist. Terence O'Neill had a different approach to politics than there had been in Northern Ireland. Even though Terence O'Neill was a Protestant politician he looked at how the Catholics were being treated differently.
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As you can see in source 'A', the Orangemen wear orange neck-pieces to celebrate William of Orange's and Protestants as a whole's success. The battle of the Boyne is celebrated because of its victory over Catholics. It therefore represents Protestant ascendancy and supremacy over the Catholics and the march takes place to demonstrate this power as a way of saying 'we have the power to do this, so we will'. This also explains why the march still continues year after year and follows the same route through Catholic territory because if it did stop or redirect for whatever reason it would undermine their authority, making them appear weak and the Catholics look as if their power is increasing.
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Unlike the Power Sharing Executive, this effort did not fail but, similarly to the Anglo Irish Agreement, it was not effective enough to have a lasting influence. The Good Friday Agreement, learning from the mistakes of the previous attempts at peace, would therefore have to have a large impact to have a lasting effect and also satisfy all groups in order to avoid upset which will result in retaliation, making the treaty ineffective. The Good Friday Agreement involved setting up a committee of 108 members, of which all key decisions would go through, requiring consent from both groups.
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Farmers had to increase producitivity and the rural Ulster was well fit for the task. The Americans needed air bases in Europe for their bombing missions. Different locations were to be used and the Ministry of Defence checked different locations for their suitability. Ardboe was chosen for one of these sites because it had flat land, near water, across to Europe, across to the Atlantic and also it could be easily converted to an air base as it had flat land.
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What are the main differences between the beliefs of the Republicans/Nationalists and the Loyalists/Unionists?
Religion has always played a part of the conflict in Northern Ireland. It was a main cause for the battle of the Boyne. This historic Irish war is celebrated by the orange order each year. The battle of the Boyne is known by many as the defeat of the Catholics over the protestant. After the battle of the Boyne Protestants took control of the power in Ireland, with this power they stripped the Catholics of their power by use of the penal laws, giving Protestants preferential treatment. This caused much hatred between he two groups.
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Easter rising In 1912 Asquith, then Prime Minister introduced the Home Rule Bill. This meant self-government for Ireland, which had been long awaited. Although the Ulster Unionist Movement opposed it was unlikely this was going to stop it. But war broke out and the government decided to back the war effort and postpone the passing of the bill until the war had finished. Many outraged by this built up civilian armies. On 24 April 1916 a force between 1000 to 1500 men and women based mainly around Dublin, with an of intention political freedom and the establishment of an independent country staged an armed revolt against the British authorities.
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A cartoon in the observer represents 'an Ireland executive' as a shaking tower of cards. There are to clouds labelled IRA and UVF they were both hard-line parties but opposing each others ideas, I believe that this cartoon portrays its idea that the Sunningdale Agreement was already unsteady and with both opposing parties arguing a single blow and it would completely collapse. But over all the agreement did not pull off as in May 1974 it came to a halt. A group calling itself the Ulster Workers Council called a strike, this was to protest about the Council of Ireland.
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On October 5, 1968 in Derry Northern Ireland, police turned what was a peaceful civil rights demonstration into a small riot. Overwhelming evidence points to an unprovoked attack by the police on the demonstrators with batons. The demonstrators retaliated with stones and petrol bombs. In 1969, England sent in troops to quell riots that had erupted over the inequality. By 1970, a resurrected PIRA was carrying out attacks against the British troops (Byrne, 2001). It is important to note that this escalation in Irish Republican Army (IRA)
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How has Northern Ireland changed since the Good Friday Agreement, and what previous attempts at peace have there been?
The most significant terms of the Good Friday Agreement were the new Northern Ireland Assembly, where all key decisions would require the consent of both communities in the province, and the early release of paramilitary prisoners, in return for the decommissioning of weapons. The Agreement aimed to achieve peace by stopping violence, permanently. The Good Friday Agreement has been the most successful attempt at peace in Ireland to date because of its involvement of paramilitary groups, which had never been done before.
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The Orange society represents their identity in their march. The Orange Order is a popular movement, it has about 75000 members in Northern Ireland today. It mixes political, religious, social and cultural activities and has a powerful influence. The Orange Order parade is important for its members to march because it shows their culture and their identity to the world. They end their meeting by singing God Save the Queen; this demonstrates that they are extremely proud to be British. The Orange Order also forbids their members from marrying Catholics, this shows that they don't like to mix with Catholics.
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You can tell that the authors view is biased as he uses strong words to make you fell sympathetic for the marchers and be angry towards the British army. John Mullin uses words like "innocent" and "defenseless" to describe how helpless the marchers and how vicious the army were. John Mullin has developed sympathy as he probably had to ask them about the Bloody Sunday incident and to give their view, which could lead him to become more bias. I think this source is reliable as a lot of information is used even though it is trying to prosecute the Para-troopers.
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Irish Catholics were furious about the take over of Ireland so they decided to rebel, they burnt houses and barns, crops and food; they also killed thousands of protestants (2000 - 3000). This made England retaliate so they sent a Scottish army of 10,000 men into Ulster and the English army took hold of Cork and Dublin, the rebellion resulted in the whole of Ireland being taken over. When King Charles II died, James II became his successor, the problem with James II being king is that he is catholic.
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became increasingly popular and even more so powerful. Sinn Fein had close links to the infamous IRA and strongly supported the believes of being a fully catholic nation. This in many ways caused the Guerrilla war (hit and run terrorism attacks)and led up to the Anglo Irish War, England did not like the idea of Ireland getting this power and England also needed to keep their control over Ireland.
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Catholics suffered huge discrimination and inequality throughout the 20th century which eventually led to civil rights campaigns. These acts of Catholics sparked sectarian violence across Northern Ireland. On 14th August 1969, during the battle of the Bogside, 500 Catholic houses were torched by Protestants (mainly UVF and Orangemen) who were angry at the Civil Rights movement. As a result of this, British troops were sent into Northern Ireland in an attempt to pacify the conflict. As the Civil Rights movements across the world were growing, so was Irelands' and the reactions of unionists to the movement were violent.
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Is there sufficient evidence in sources D to J to explain why the Troubles broke out in Northern Ireland in 1969?
The Vice Principal seems to be a Nationalist, 'She disliked the English...She was very keen about Irish culture. She didn't hate Protestants. But her view was that they weren't Irish'. This appears to be a typical view of many Catholic Irish people at the time, who felt their country had been invaded by the Protestants and were taking control of everything. The author of the source also talks about learning Irish history when she was at school and how different interpretations were given about it from Protestant books.
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These facts may have been largely influenced by the views of major political figures like Ian Paisley. "Keep Protestant workers in employment in times of depression in preference to their fellow Catholic workers." Politician's views were just a small minority of the problems Catholics faced politically. During the mid-sixties gerrymandering was rife in Northern Ireland. Gerrymandering was a term used for dividing an area into election districts to give the Protestants an electoral advantage. Local elections in Londonderry 1966, South ward, out of 11'185 voters 10'047 were Catholic and 1'138 were Protestants. In the North ward, out of 6'476 voters 2'530 were Catholic and 3'946 were Protestant, and in the Waterside ward of 5'549 voters 1'852 were Catholic and 3697 were Protestant.
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This meant taking vast quantities of land from the Catholics leaving many homeless. This, lead to rebellion against England in 1641 and spread to other parts of Ireland. The rebels managed to reclaim land whilst the English where fighting a civil war. This meant many massacres against the Protestants in Ulster. Once the civil war had concluded with Oliver Cromwell as its head he caused more massacres, this time against the Catholics killing soldiers and civilians before taking more land leaving many starving and ill. The two massacres in the 1640's where recorded and examined in two ways, street history and historically.
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