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GCSE: Northern Ireland 1965-85
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Where as the Protestants feel that the British soldiers where innocent and the Catholics were armed. This is why it's so hard to find the truth. After bloody Sunday an enquiry was put forward to come to the truth and to find out exactly what happened. This was named the Widgery enquiry. It lasted 3 months including 2 months of investigation. This alone insulted the Catholics because the whole enquiry was short, too short to investigate 14 deaths. Also it was immediately after the incident which again offended them because there wasn't time to grieve properly.
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This would make the Irish resentful as Henry was changing their whole way of life by passing unfair laws, changing their religion and ruling over their land for his own selfish reasons. Plantation The unrest in Ireland continued throughout the reign of Henry VIII and into the reign of Elizabeth I his daughter. In the 1550's many of the Irish Catholic Lords rebelled against Protestantism and English rule.
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This means that they may have panicked and though that they heard something and thus the firing started. So the soldiers' accounts may not be very reliable because they were in an different situation to what they normally were and may have been scared. This would mean their account may be affected by emotions. Source A does have some views from the other side but it does not however have any Catholics opinions. This means the source is biased towards the Paras.
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so the county of Fermanagh was mainly catholic but the people in control of the councils and government were the minority, the protestants, this suggests that the government were overflowed with protestants and they were very prejudice against the Catholics and the Catholics had no way of overcoming them because of their given power so they had very little opportunity in life. But the discrimination wasn't just in important and powerful jobs it was difficult to find any job. "Of about 75 school bus drivers in Fermanagh, all but seven were protestant".
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I will be exploring the sources reliability, accuracy, whether it is fact, whether it is biased and basically discussing whether they are reliable evidence to show us exactly why the trouble did brake out in 1969. Source D Source D is an adaptation written by a Catholic civil rights spokes person named B Devlin in 1969. B Devlin based this piece of writing on how a young Roman Catholic school girl described her days. Source D tells the reader about how the vice principle of St Patrick's Academy, Mother Benignus felt towards the English and protestants, as well as how she gave her opinion to the students of her school.
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Where did the volunteers come from? El Salvador, France, Africa, Canada and Ireland 5) Describe some of the symbolism of the Croi. The Croi is used as a place of informal worship in the Corrymeela community, instead of hosting such sessions in a church. To enter the Croi, whose front window held the words of the prayer of St Francis, so that "peace" was situated on the handle; to enter or leave you had to touch peace. The main room was a circle, reflecting that no one is more important than anyone else and that their worship is all inclusive.
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The faith Protestant was formed against the catholic faith by a group of Catholics who began protesting against. This hences the name Protestants. The group grew bigger and protested at how the pope in Rome and his Bishops were too wealthy, also at how the Catholic Churches were too richly decorated. The Protestants complained and protested at how ordinary people could not understand the services because they were all in Latin. All this happened around 1500. These people were now called Protestants as a result of all their protesting, and they set up a different form of Christianity called Protestantism.
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Sometimes it was suspected terrorists had infiltrated peaceful marches and caused violence that often escalated into riots and these caused innocent people to get seriously injured. One of the most famous riots was the Battle of Bogside; this riot took place in Derry and lasted from 12-14 August 1969. The riot saw over five hundred women and children evacuated out of the area and caused over 1000 casualties. It was clear the Irish police and the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC)
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Write an account of what life in Ireland was like in the middle of the 13th century, using archaeological evidence as your source material.
The first part of this essay will discuss the medieval industries that were used throughout this period. People seemed to have been heavily involved with the use and manufacture of pottery (Mallory & McNeill 1991,266). However iron working and stone working also seems to be very popular industries that people undertook to earn money. Pots from Down Patrick and Carrickfergus kilns show examples of this in the archaeological record. At the Carrickfergus kilns there have been glazed jugs uncovered and excavated as well as that of some cooking pots (Mallory & McNeill 1991, 266). Another craft that also took place was stone masonry.
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One of the main features to take into consideration is in fact the grand scale of ringforts that have been uncovered. Even though 60,000 ringforts have been discovered, excavation evidence has shown that by no means were all of these sites together inhabited at the same time (Mytum 1992, 32). This shows that it just may have been the aristocratic class who dwelled in these because there would have been a quite substantial less number of aristocrats in Celtic Ireland than those of the middle and lower classes.
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They do not want to be run by the queen. Although all the Catholics share the same goal, they go about it in many different ways. For example the IRA uses very violent methods to achieve what they want. However on the other hand there is the SDLP (Social Democratic Labour Party) are totally committed to democratic, peaceful methods. So although they both want to become an Independent countries there are different ways the two groups try and achieve it.
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This was because the Irish Church had consistently declined to follow the doctrines of the Church of Rome. In 1171, Henry II accepted the submission of his nobles in Ireland and the Irish Kings and bishops. This marked the beginning of more than seven hundred years of English rule in Ireland. The King of England had been Lord of Ireland ever since. The whole of Ireland was now nominally under English rule but in reality much of the country remained independent.
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Do sources H and I support Reverend Ian Paisleys view of the Civil Rights Movement given in Source G? In a television interview Ian Paisley states his views plainly.
Ian Paisley is trying to link together the IRA and everyone else in the Civil Rights movement. Source I gives clear information on the Civil Rights Association and the personal that supported it. The report was produced for the British Government in the 1970's, and so perhaps we should treat the contents as factually accurate. The report states that 'membership was politically varied and undoubtedly included persons of extreme Republican views and activities'.
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He would falsify papers that claimed he purchased land from an Irish landlord. In Irish tradition, the landlord did not have the right to sell land that the people lived on. This would cause a riot or rebellion against the landlord who would try to convince him of his innocence. Henry would send troops down to kill everyone in the town, labeling them 'rebels.' The Reign of Queen Elizabeth was not much different, except that by her time, certain lords who had given allegiance to England had become quite powerful.
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(Q1) What Are The Main Differences of Beliefs Between Nationalists/Republicans and Unionists/Loyalists
Nationalists consider themselves Irish because they do not favour union with Britain. When it comes to election time, unionists usually vote for unionist political parties and Nationalists tend to vote for Nationalist political parties. Most unionists follow the Stormont Government and trust it's leadership but some highly distrust the Irish Government. Nationalists generally support the Irish Government; but most Catholics have a high distrust of the Stormont Government. The distrust in the Governments has increased due to events such as Bloody Sunday where the British Army murdered fourteen Catholics. The main political are obviously the Nationalists and Unionists.
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At first, British Parliament paid no attention to the Dail. This was because the Sinn Fein members were members of the House of Commons and were entitled to some level of respect and courtesy. However when Britain and David Lloyd George in particular realized just how serious the Dail was, they began to take actions. The Dail was made illegal in September 1919 and now the cabinet members had to meet irregularly and in disguise. On the same day in 1919 that the Dail first met, the IRA killed two British policemen who were escorting a load of gelignite.
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The first cause I will look at is the Civil Rights movement. NICRA(Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association) was the Civil Rights movement in Northern Ireland during the time. In the 1960's there was a popular movement to improve the rights of all people in Northern Ireland. They demonstrated peacefully to achieve their aims. Although NICRA was campaigning for the rights of all citizens, they were often perceived as pro-Catholic. They were therefore often attacked by Loyalists and members of the largely Protestant RUC.
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I think the aim of the source was to show the dislike between the Irish and the English, however the source is only 1 sided. Source E shows a nineteenth century protestant cartoon, showing Erin (Ireland), bound in ropes by a catholic priest. My interpretation of the image is that Ireland is bound by Catholics and the Catholics keep trying to take over and control Ireland, also if Ireland was rid of the Catholics then Ireland would be free and he protestants could rule Ireland.
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The 1829 Act overhauled this restriction on Catholic rights, enabling the Catholic cause in Ireland to take the political centre stage on a national scale. This is a great testament to the effectiveness of O'Connell as in future the Irish Catholic cause would represented in the House of Commons and Irish reform would be subsequently much more viable. O'Connell's Catholic Association was key to his high level of effectiveness in defeating the major obstacles that had hitherto prevented an Emancipation Act.
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They are the majority of the population of the whole of Ireland but the minority in Northern Ireland. They hate Protestants, as they remember from history how they grabbed land from Irish Catholics. They also hate the British from when Oliver Cromwell slaughtered thousands of Catholics and how Britain brutally crushing the Easter Rising in 1916. The Loyalists/Unionists/Protestants see themselves as British and want Northern Ireland to stay united with Britain. A Loyalist is a person who is loyal to Britain union and a Unionist wants to be united with Britain. They both feel British forces protect them from terrorism.
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Tension dramatically increases as Catholics are unhappy and Protestants happy about the partition of Ireland. Troubles increase. In 1845, potato famming occurred, one million people died and another one million immigrated to America (this is when the Fenians started up; these lay the origins of the IRA) and also extreme prejudice increases between Catholics and Protestants and against the British Government. Between 1912-14, there was Home Rule Crisis between Nationalists and Unionists. Nationalists who were generally Catholic wanted one nation leading themselves. Sinn Fein and the IRA represented Nationalists and the main leaders were Michael Collins and De Valera.
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Why was it so hard to establish a regional police force in Northern Ireland after the 1998 Good Friday Agreement?
1922 to 1968, by the unionists and the RUC's reaction to the civil rights protests of the later 1960's but the creation of the provisional IRA (the Provo's) in the early 1970's and by the failure of peace agreements in the 1970's to the 1990's. Although the nationalists have recently accepted the new PSNI as legitimate, it has taken 8 years since 1998, and even now the unionists and nationalists have still now agreed to share power so the problem remains unsolved.
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We should be able to ensure families that they won't be bombed in their routine lives. Do you want your children living in a dangerous place like that? Every night we have had to bear the horrifying scenes of more killings on television. Seeing those terrifying scenes makes me ask myself, why am I still here? It is because I have faith in Ireland. It will prosper again. Michael Dillon, a hotel manager, was recently brutally killed. Even in England he wasn't safe. We have to stand up and look this struggle in the face, we will fight it, beat it, and defeat it.
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What was the main reason why the British army faced many problems during the battle for peace in Free Derry?
After the Battle of the Blogside, Derry was known as the 'community of revolt'. This was because Free Derry had been uncontrolled for many years, since Derry declared it self independent and separated themselves from the Blogside. This made it hard for the army to prepare for entering Ireland; they did not know what to expect, or how the Irish would react to their arrival.
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Which political party, Conservative or Liberal, was more threatened by events in Ireland in the period 1909-1916?
At most the Lords could only delay a Home Rule for two years. After that it would become law. A third Home Rule Bill was introduced in 1912. Although the Irish Nationalists held the balance of power, that alone does not explain why the Liberal government introduced the Bill. Many Liberals genuinely wanted Home Rule; the Nationalists did not therefore force the government into it. The content of the 3rd Home Rule Bill 1912 sparked the major political crises. The bill was fundamentally the same as that of 1893 in that parliament in Westminster was still supreme.
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