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GCSE: Russia, USSR 1905-1941
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Using The Sources And Your Own Knowledge Describe How Stalin Improved The Soviet Economy During The 5 Year Plans.
When the first 5-year plan was passed the soviet economy was vastly improved. Source A shows this well as electricity production was increased to 13.4(thousand million kilowatt hours), coal was vastly improved to 21.4(million tons), Pig Iron was at 6.2(million tons) and steel was increased to 5.9(million tons). In some cases the target was not meet however the out put was hugely improved this is shown in source B that although Russia was still behind the U.S.A. they were ahead of Germany and the U.K. meanwhile in source C Stalin himself is speaking of how the soviet union has got industry they did not have before the 5 year plan.
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This lead to the political organization the "Land and Freedom" formed by the 'Populists' or 'Narodniks'. "The People's Will", a terrorist group also formed to kill the Tsar in March 1881. When Alexander III came to power in 1881, he set about suppressing the peasants and all opposition to himself. His Russification policy forced Russian culture on the 50 million non-Russians in the empire. Censorship was also increased and the freedom of universities was reduced. Alexander's mistakes lay in the fact that the people had got a taste of freedom under his father, and now he was taking it away again.
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The repercussions of these stirred up revolutionary activity from all groups of society as violence and unrest began to surface. All these reasons I consider culminated in the revolution which would cause a 'fundamental change' in Russian autocracy by giving rise to the first form of a partially democratic, centralised governing body that Russia had ever seen, the Duma. The judicial system however did progress much earlier in the 'Great reforms of the 1860's' via the establishment of the Zemstva, regional courts in each province which, for the first time in modern Russian history, granted a degree of representation.
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He tells the people: 'It seemed to me that the lack of concern our leaders show towards the people is the same as the attitude I met in far off Siberia.' It shows us simply this persona that Stalin adopted to gain respect from the people, and not the man himself. Stalin wanted the people to think that he was a compassionate man, and therefore the purges and other political action in Russia at the time was all done by Stalin, on behalf of and for the benefit of the people.
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However, the lower classes were not alone in their oppression by the Tsarist state. The middle-class intelligentsia had political rights that were derisory in comparison with their Western counterparts who had been given the vote decades previously. Russia at that time was one state but in reality it contained a diverse variety of people. National minorities such as Ukrainians, Poles and Finns wanted autonomy, but were allowed even less independence during the reign of Nicholas II because of his 'Russification' programme.
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To what extent in the period 1906-1914 did the Russian monarchy succeed in removing the primary causes of internal tension and creating a wider base of support?
No modern techniques were used in Russian farming, possibly caused by the high tariffs on foreign machinery. Many farmers did not own any animals; this had a dire effect on agricultural development because Russian land was better equipped for animal farming then arable farming. The method of strip farming that was used throughout Russia meant that machinery couldn't be used because the area was too small; it also prevented any expansion, resulting in little progression for Russia's agriculture. Stolypin, one of Tsar's associates attempted to improve the problem of land shortages and peasant discontent; he abolished redemption payments, as Tsar
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Summary of Evidence 1. The Situation in Russia During the Collaboration During 1917 the political situation in Russia was dismal. After years of Autocratic rule, the country was left in such a poor economic condition that Tsar Nicholas was overthrown in a brutal civil war in 1914, thus ending the reign of the dictatorial Romanov rulers. A Provisional Government comprised of numerous liberal and democratic leaders and politicians was formed to handle the affairs of the country. Though the government had good intentions in the beginning they did very little to improve the situation of the Russian working class.1 Unsatisfied, left wing radicals began to oppose nearly all of the decision and ideals of the government.
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During all the course of the French Revolution the most controversial figure was Maximilien Robespierre.
He declared that dictatorship was necessary after the outbreak of the revolution because of internal dissension and foreign wars. I think that only in such a chaotic time you could see such a controversial person coming to power and it is probably connected to some kind of the law of how parties at that time were getting their leadership and the only thing that this law was based on was Sans Cullotes. The ones that could get the support of Sans Cullotes could take power in their hands. From my point of view that are the main reasons of Robespierre's rise to power.
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Choose any reason and explain how it contributed to the downfall of the Tsar in March, 1917. You do not have to restrict your answer to just the chosen reason if other factors are relevant.
He was known to be a heavy drinker, and a flirtatious womaniser. He was thought to be having an affair with the Tsarina, and the Russian people also thought that Rasputin had had control over the Tsar. The pair of them were also very unpopular, as the Tsarina was thought to be having an affair with Rasputin. As a result of the Tsarina and Rasputin ruling the country in the Tsar's absence, Tsarism became very unpopular among the Russian people, especially the peasants. A modern historian, Alan Wood argued that there was nothing that could stop the Tsar being overthrown.
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The last claim of 'Lenin and his colleagues...living in luxury' does seem believable. As heads of state their appearance would be well-dressed with the suggestion that they lived well while the 'peasants' struggled for survival. On the other hand, the claim that 'the rule of the 'Bolsheviks' is largely to blame seems biased since Russia clearly experienced severe crisis before their rule began. Nonetheless, 'peasants' may well choose to blame whoever is currently in charge. In conclusion, more information about who 'these people' represent in Russia would be needed before this source can be considered trustworthy together with more information on who was doing the reporting.
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Meaning they had the final say on everything and basically ruled the entire country by themselves. So if a revolution were to occur, it would be a direct result of their inability to properly rule their countries. As it so happens, unrest and discontent in Russia and China was rife, and the Tsar and Empress were completely incompetent in their naive attempts to diffuse the situation. This of course led to a revolution. So in this case credit can almost wholly be given to the Tsar and Empress for the revolutions that occurred in their respective countries.
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How effectively did governments in pre-revolutionary societies deal with social and political unrest?
Peasants often did not own any land and were forced to work for landlords, who paid very little. Peasants were not happy with the current situation and wanted land reforms so they could own land for themselves. Unfortunately these pleas went unheard and so led to much discontent and unrest amongst the lower classes in these societies. The Tsar of Russia and the Empress of China were seen by the common person as a god-like deity selected by right of birth to rule the country as they see fit.
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“Collectivisation was a political success but an economic failure and a human disaster” discuss.
Secondly we should take a brief moment to look at the reasons why it was implicated in the first place. The reason was Stalin's plan to modernise Russia, to do this he needed his industrialisation plans to work, for these plans to work they needed an increased grain output. He believed that collectivisation was the best way to achieve such a goal. Now to look at the political aspects of collectivisation, the quote used in the title of this essay would lay claim that it was a success, but is this indeed the case?
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These again were used to carry the Russian army and supplies to their home front. These are all reasons why conditions were so bad in Petrograd. b) This could lead to a revolution because people were getting grumpy due to the lack of food and the way they had to work harder. The war effort was going badly and people were upset that they were losing so many battles. They were looking for someone to blame and the obvious people were the Tsar, the Tsarina and Rasputin. They would blame the Tsar due to him taking over the Russian army and the way they seemed not to win a single battle and all the countless lives that were being lost.
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How far does Quarry Bank Mill demonstrate the methods of factory production introduced during the Industrial Revolution?
It was never the main source of income as this slot was occupied by the agricultural sector. The main reasons for all these fresh ideas emerging were all the new inventions that suddenly came to be mass produced by all sorts of individuals pushing for a better world, or alternatively, to become rich and famous. This essay will also be describing Quarry Bank Mill in detail and comparing it to other noticeable mills around the country at the time and also later.
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They marched to the winter palace but unknown to them he wasn't there. Instead they were met with armed soldiers who fired upon the unarmed crowd, killing approximately 1000 protesters This became known as "Bloody Sunday". In February 1905 the Tzar's uncle, the Grand Duke Sergei, was assassinated. From then on strikes and riots spread across Russia. There was even mutiny on the battleship Potemkin leaving only the army to combat the revolution. If the army mutinied the Tzar would have no-one to put down the riots and strikes.
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The aims of the 1905 revelution were for civil liberty, a Duma and for all laws to be made by the Duma The 1917 revolution was not as widespread as the 1905 revolution but this time members included civilians, deserted soldiers and members of the government. The revolution involved strikes and demonstrations mainly around the city of Petrograd (the capital of Russia). The demands of the revolution were better living and working conditions as well as other things, and above all the people wanted the tsar to resign.
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Bukharin was speaking to Fyodor Dan, a Menshevik who had been deported by Lenin, in a conversation about Stalin when his side of the conversation was recorded. We cannot see the other side of the conversation that could differ from Bukharin's point of view. There may have been some surrounding influences on Bukharin because Paris was the centre of opposition, but this also meant that he could say whatever he liked, whenever he liked without the worry that he would be punished.
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Using the sources in this paper and your knowledge of Stalin explain whether or not you think he was a monster.
Stalin made changes in the standard of living for the Russian people. Almost every person had a job, enough money to put food on the table and keep a roof over their heads, children were educated and there was a health service. With Stalin's changes that had been made and through good leadership he saved Russia form defeat in WW2. A big problem was that Russia was about 50 years behind the west in all sectors (arms, health, industry etc)
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Do you agree with the view that Stalin successfully removed ‘treachery’ and ‘counter-revolution’ in the USSR in the 1930’s?
Theses purges definitely removed something from Russia, but whether it was 'treachery' and 'counter-revolution or whether it was removed successfully is a totally different question/matter. The 1930's saw the introduction of a new economic plan to modernise Russia and make it more powerful and influential. Stalin initiated a succession of five-year plans, which was supposed to push Russia towards rapid industrialisation. These five-year plans focused hugely on heavy industry. Stalin justification for this was that Russia needed to build up an industrial infrastructure of factories, plants and communication before other sectors could flourish.
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The Russian government introduced a system of redemption payments where peasants had to pay the government for the land they used to produce crops to sell at the market. In the cities workers were forced to work long hours, sometimes as long as 18 hours, for an amount of money that wouldn't buy them a decent meal. Transport was non-existent. The roads were few and far between, those that were there were of poor quality. Railways had just been introduced but were developing slowly. Terrorism was on the increase and political parties were formed to fight against the Tsarist system.
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"-Tender thanks for the severe written scholding. Your poor little weak-willed hubby." (A declaration made in 1916 when things were going badly for Russia in the First World War) " The day of my coronation I took my oath to absolute power. I must leave this oath intact to my son." These sources describe two major qualities of Nicholas which where the roots of the problems in the government. Nicolas knew nothing about the ways that a country should be run. He didn't know public policies and he didn't know how to deal with officials.
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His son was very very ill, and as a last resort, the Tsar asked Rasputin to help his son. This would have shocked the nation - because the Tsar regarded the peasants as and 'inferior race' compared to the humans. It would be unheard of for a peasant to come within 100metres of the Tsar. Rasputin continued to mix with the royal family, (and rumours were circulating that Rasputin was mixing very well indeed with the Tsarina) but he still continued to be drunk and sleep with prostitutes.
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Under Nicholas II resentment grew and support increased for opposition groups such as the Socialist Revolutionaries and the Kadets. Nicholas II remained in power with the support of the army - and in particular the Cossacks - the Church, the nobles, the civil service and the hated secret police (the Okhrana) who hunted down and eliminated trouble-makers. In 1906 a parliament called the Duma was set up, not because the Tsar really wanted one but to try and calm unrest after the "Bloody Sunday" massacres, but it had little influence and could only criticise the Tsar's government.
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It seemed as though Nicholas II was only ruling as Tsar because he had to. The Tsar took little notice of the ordinary Russian people. He did not respect their needs and let them continue to live and work in terrible conditions. Houses were cold and many people were illiterate. The Tsar did little to improve the conditions of workers which made the people angry as the Tsar was eating banquets with his family and aristocrat friends while the workers were working for their country in dirty and cold surroundings. As the Tsar he should have been caring about his own people.
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