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GCSE: Russia, USSR 1905-1941
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Both Lenin and Stalin were extremely passionate about the Marxist idea and they both loved using brutal method to remain in control, Stalin used it to eliminate all of the opposition and the authorities who he suspected to be spies while Lenin used it to gain control of Russia. Lenin was arrogant about his intellectual knowledge but even after all the propaganda reports where stripped away from him after his death he was revealed to be a modest hard working person who worked 16 hours a day and read an extensive amount of books which from he managed to get
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3. The Russian Empire contained many people, the Majority of them non-Russian e.g. 22 million Ukrainians in the south and 8 million Poles in the west. Many of these peoples disliked the Russian rule and wanted independence. B. The government of Russia 1. The head of the government was Tsar Nicholas II. He ruled as an autocrat, a ruler who does not have to share power. 2. The work of the government as done by a large and corrupt civil slaves.
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They were only allowed to produce work that reflected the glorious achievements of communism. The propaganda played a part in Stalin's gain of power because it helped create his cult of personality and therefore everybody saw him as a hero rather than a villain. Also as he had killed all his enemies in the purges there was no one to disagree with the propaganda so the people had nothing else to believe. Since it had come to power, the communist party had periodically 'purged' its membership, getting rid of those who were suspected of being disloyal.
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Trotsky was later discredited for his work however as the Bolsheviks ganged up on after the death of Lenin, not wanting him to become the new party leader. Kerensky: On October 24th Kerensky attempted to put a stop to the forthcoming seize which he and the rest of the Provisional Government were said to of known was going to happen. He ordered the army to prepare for the Bolshevik attempt to seize power.
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the October Manifesto, his not being willing to accept a more democratic and representative form of government after the scare of the 1905 Revolution and of course the decisions he made during the First World War all added significantly to the initially pressures eventually leading to his downfall.. The vastness of Russia, although perhaps an advantage if managed well, did not make matters easy for Nicholas II. His grandfather, Alexander II, was largely responsible for the implementation of the mostly unpopular policy of Russification, forcing non-indigenous citizens of the Empire to speak Russian, dress Russian, even adopt Russian customs.
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Whilst this was happening, the Tsar wasn't even in the palace. This was called "Bloody Sunday" and it was all blamed on the Tsar, even though he didn't give the order to shoot those people. This made him look very sinister to all of Russia. Bloody Sunday wouldn't have happened if there weren't any problems with the workers. Russia was an 18th century country living in a 20th century world insinuating that they were behind in technology and people's rights. There were a lot of problems in Russia, for example, the population of Russia was rapidly increasing, therefore food supply was running short.
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The third Five Year Plan was meant to switch factories to the production of consumer goods, but it was cut short by the outbreak of World War Two as factories had to produce military equipment. The other economic policy is Collectivisation. This worked on developing agriculture to support Russia's modernisation, but with more focus on changing the culture to be more communist. Before collectivisation farmland was divided up into tiny plots of land for each individual peasant where they could grow food for themselves and sell the surplus on for profit.
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Another reason why Russia was unsuccessful in the war was because there weren't enough weapons, so soldiers fought with whatever they could find. For example, they would use a brick or a plank of wood if they were lucky. They were told to pick up there comrades rifle if he died. However, Russia's prime minister at this time was Stolypin and he could have made things better for Russia and the Tsar's reputation. He had the idea of creating a rich peasant which he called a "Kulak".
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He ruled as he liked. His will was the sole source of law, of taxation and justice. He controlled the army and all the officials and even religious affairs. His autocratic rule was supported by the privileged nobles, who possessed land and serfs, and held all the chief offices in the Tsar's administration. The mass of people were serfs. Serfs were peasants, 'slaves'. They worked on the estates of the nobles. They could be punished in any form by the nobles and could even be sold as chattels. Besides the serfs, there was a very small middle class in the towns.
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and progressed to the publicised show trials of high party officials in 1934. Stalin ordered these purges for a number of reasons, foremost was the need to remove his rivals from positions of power. One such rival was Kirov and it's entirely possible, though unproven, that Kirov's murder was actually ordered by Stalin himself. There were many 'old Bolsheviks' within the party who simply knew too much about him, the fact that he had very little to do with the actions of 1917 and also that they knew the truth about his relationship with Lenin, a relationship that was not as close as Stalin led people to believe, indeed in the photograph of
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Since both sides essentially made use of the same technology (the machine gun, for example), stalemates were only further prolonged as neither side had an advantage over the other with access to more powerful, newer technology 4. Therefore, in order to do so both sides sought to find more modern and lethal forms of weaponry in order to break stalemates on the Western Front. The new metallurgical and chemical industries, and many new mechanical inventions, had produced new firepower that made defense almost unconquerable and attack near to impossible 5.
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Why was the Kronstadt rising, March 1921, considered so important? When the communist revolution started in 1917, the sailors of the Kronstadt naval base had been between the most important supporters of this event, even firing artillery shells over Petrograd the night of the revolution. However, three years later, these strong supporters of communism now considered that 'life under the yoke of the Communists dictatorship has become more terrible than death'. In March 1921, the sailors of the Kronstadt naval base revolted against the communist government, because they had not received what they expected from the government they had put into power.
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This, in Marx's eyes was Utopia. I'm going to look at the links between this theory and the Bolshevik Revolution. Lenin read this theory and did use this as a basis for the Bolshevik revolution but there were other factors that also led to the revolution; starvation, weak governments, poor decisions by Tsar Nicholas II, failures in WW1 and many other factors that contributed to the Bolshevik revolution. Tsar Nicholas was a bad leader and made a fatal decision in 1915 to take control of the Russian army after a quarter of their men had died in the first year; this meant any defeat he could be blamed for.
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as a religious healer and Alexis started to recover, one can understand why she became so close to him and respected him so greatly. She believed that he had been sent by God to save her son. Over the next few years he became a great friend of the Tsar, Nicholas II, and his family. This, however, had great effects on the Tsars reputation. Rasputin was a holy man from Siberia. He was a member of the Kylysty set, a religious group that believed that religious ecstasy was achieved through the senses.
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In 1904 he went into war with Japan over Manchuria. To fund this he increased the taxes for the peasants. He also produced propaganda that portrayed Japan as weak and defeatable. You can imagine the humiliation of the Russian public when they were forced to surrender to Japan. The failures of Nicholas to rule properly angered and upset many peasants. The policy of Russification, they felt, was unfair and denied them basic rights. There had always been a very large divide between rich and poor in Russia and with 80% of the population poor you can see that Russia wasn't a very wealthy country.
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One of the main reasons and feed its population. Although the kulaks fairly wealthy many other hard working peasants were not producing enough food to feed the entire population of Russia. Stalin knew that he had to feed his workers to keep them content. Also, to make sure the people of Russia were content Stalin wanted to get rid of the kulaks and make all the peasants equal and to prove that communism really did work in practice. Collectivization helped him achieve his idea of making sure that the peasants all were equal even though at first many of the peasants resented the idea.
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The League of Nations was formed in 1919 to encourage the member countries to co-operate in trade, improve social conditions, complete disarmament and to protect any member country that was being threatened with war. The League of Nations was the initial
Finally he announced that no law would become operative without the approval of the State Duma. As the Duma was only a consultative body, many Russians felt that this reform did not go far enough. Leon Trotsky and other revolutionaries criticized the plan. In December, 1905, the leaders of the Soviets (in Petrograd and Moscow particularly), were exiled or executed. Lenin and Trotsky retreated again, realising that the time for revolution had not yet come. Also the Tsar also began to introduce financial help for peasants. Although these measures were only short term it was one of the reason Nicholas managed to survive the 1905 revolution.
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A more likely contribution to the fall of the Tsar is his failure during the war. Many historians argue that because the Tsar went to war in 1915 and the Tsarina was left in control of the country, Rasputin was left with a lot of power due to her trust for him, which disheartened and upset the Russian public, and in addition, caused the country to be run very poorly, possibly stirring the murmurs of revolution. In actual fact, Rasputin tried to advise the Tsar to make certain military decisions, which he ignored.
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There are many different reasons why Stalin and not Trotsky became Lenins successor. When Lenin died he left no clear successor to lead the Communist Party, so it was assumed that Trotsky was going to be Lenins successor,
On the other hand Trotsky was highly educated and he was a thinker, this raised jealousy and suspicious among the communist party. Trotsky was so arrogant, people were afraid of Trotsky by most of the seniors in the Bolshevik party, because Trotsky offended most of them. Trotsky failed to realise that he needed them to support him when they voted for one of them for a new successor.
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In 1940, even Trotsky was murdered in Mexico by one of Stalin's agents. After the show trials, Stalin turned his attention to the army, specifically its officers. It is believed about 25,000 officers were removed, about 1 in 5, including the commander of the army, Tukhachevsky, who was simply removed as Stalin saw him as one of the few remaining people with the power to oppose him. By 1937 an estimated 18 million people had been transported to gulags and nearly 10 million had died.
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Bad weather also iced over the railway lines in 1916. This in turn made import of food into such cities as Petrograd extremely difficult. The slow import of food meant that food which was able to reach the cities, rose sky high in price. Unfortunately the workers weren't able to afford these amounts and so many starved through the cold months. Often queues formed for bread however, there was no bread to be bought. The weather also affected soldiers fighting in the war. This led the soldiers to side with the workers during strikes and with their help, the workers were able to overthrow the Tsar.
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Firstly, Hitler chose to invade Russia on the date, 22nd of June because in Russia the winters can become extremely cold and the temperature of Russia will usually drop to below -30C. These temperatures are very bad for warfare and the German soldiers certainly wouldn't have been able to deal with them and still achieve a successful invasion of Russia. So Hitler chose the date of 22nd of June because the temperatures would have been more bearable for the German troops.
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The following were all equally important reasons why the Bolsheviks won the Civil war of 1918-21: - Bolshevik Strengths - Foreign Intervention - White deficiencies Explain how far you agree with this statement.
They were committed and it paid off with them finally winning the civil war in 1917. Another Bolshevik strength was their very effective propaganda. Examples of this were the 8 hour (maximum) day and the free education for all, which were policies they never intended to stick to but just to increase their popularity. The Bolsheviks were very good at using propaganda and saw it as an opportunity to win over supporters and get more men fighting for them. There was also the decree to give equality to women, the nationalities and all religions. This was very successful propaganda as it targeted women, who were half the population and nationalities of which there were many in Russia for example Ukrainians and Estonians.
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Stalin - Source E and Source F are completely different to one another. One is biased in favour of Stalin and one is highly critical of him.
The content is mythical and portrays a cult worship of Stalin. The writer starts by thanking Stalin for making him so happy and for the inspirational meeting with the great leader. It is over the top. What baby would utter Stalin as its first word! It was written in 1935 which was a year after the purges had begun. It is utterly one sided and does not tell us anything about the meeting with Stalin or what was going on at that time. Source F talks about how unhappy Stalin was and how narrow minded, malicious and dangerous he was.
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How important a reason for the outbreak of revolution in 1917 was Russias involvement in the First World War?
The medium term causes included, the effects of World War 1 on Russia, also economic problems in Russia were to blame along with food shortages in Russia and political problems also affected Russia. The trigger factors which contributed to the 1917 revolution included the shortages of bread in the Russian capital and different forms of weather.
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