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GCSE: Russia, USSR 1905-1941
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It is estimated 7 million Russians died as a result of the famine. In February 1921 war communism sparked off mutiny at Kronstadt naval base. Trotsky put down the revolt but war communism was immediately abandoned. This is because the Kronstatd sailors had been amongst the strongest supporters of Lenin and bolshevism. Lenin recognised that changes were necessary to consolidate the Bolshevik power, and so in March 1921 Lenin announced the New Economic Policy. The New economic policy was very successful. It abolished grain requisitioning which meant that Peasants could now sell any surplus food they produced to the open market.
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People say that if the NEP had prevailed the casualties would not have been so big and the growth of the Soviet Union would have been steadier and less damaging. Secondly, there are the purges and show trials. Stalin's purges began in December 1934, when Sergey Kirov was assassinated. Although details remain murky, many historians believe that Stalin insisted the murder to rid himself of a potential opponent. In any event, in the resultant mass purge of the local Leningrad party, thousands were deported to camps in Siberia.
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He ended Lenin's NEP (New Economic Policy) and set up a series of five year plans setting targets for the production of coal, oil and electricity in each region. Huge steel mills and dams were built wherever there was a natural resource and towns were built around them. Other countries were impressed and amazed at the speed at which these industries were started and made successful. In 1930 Stalin had realised that there was a general shortage of workers and so he decided to get women in to work by setting up thousands of new cr�ches and day care.
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Petersburg. As a result, Eugene looses his house and his fianc�, but most importantly he looses his mind. Eugene was faced with having to start his life over from scratch, but even before the storm he had almost nothing. What drove Eugene mad was not that he was starting with nothing, but that even after working hard to restore his life he would still be living a life that had no hope. Peter established the social structure that prevented Eugene from doing anything beyond a civil servant. Within this social framework equality is not possible; a rich man would stay rich just as a poor man would stay poor.
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It is supposed there were five'. This shows conflict between the beliefs of Sources A and B with Source C - and so despite the fact Sources A and B provide a fairly similar series of events does not necessarily mean that they are reliable. However, it also doesn't mean that it isn't reliable - Source I, comes from the perspective of a Bolshevik, and some of the details in Source I draw comparisons to the Menshevik perspectives portrayed via Sources A and B.
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History - USSR - The main reason for the February/March Revolution was The World War I. Do you agree?
The majority of the population were peasants and the minority were very wealthy. * The people of Russia were denied freedom of speech. * Nicholas's secret police, The Okhrana, were employed to crush any strikes or protests. * The living and working conditions of peasants and industrial workers were very bad. * Revolutionary groups were formed: The Liberals, The Social Revolutionaries and The Social Democrats. * In 1904, Russia suffered humiliating defeats at the hands of Japan. This caused more bitterness towards the Tsar and his autocratic rule. * In 1905, a peaceful protest took place, with the aim of asking the Tsar peacefully to improve conditions in Russia.
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The first policy was collectivisation. This took place when Peasants were to put their lands together to form large joint farms called Kolkhoz but could keep small plots for personal use. Animals and tools were to be pooled together ninety percent of the kolkhoz produce and would be sold to the state and profits shared out. The remaining ten percent was used to feed the kolkhoz. The government had tried to sell these ideas to the peasants offering free seeds and other perks however complications erupted soon.
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- making it notoriously difficult to have complete control as messages would take a lot of time to travel from one side of the country to the other. If Stalin wanted to make an impact with collectivization, it would need to be enforced strongly as farming methods at this point were primitive and inefficient because the peasants were traditionally very independent and would do their best to resist interference from the government. Another obstacle were the kulaks, and the fact that they owned 90% of the most fertile land, this problem would require and agreement or some form of negotiation
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Their views focus mainly on the role that Lenin played in the October revolution, and some historians with a revisionist view thought that the lower ranks of the Bolshevik party played a large part in pushing the revolution forward. They have suggested that Lenin did not hold as much power over the Bolshevik party as many believe he did. Sheila Patrick said that it was the soldiers, workers and peasants that created the conditions in which the Bolshevik revolt could operate.
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War Communism was policies that were needed for Lenin and Trotsky to take control of the economy. When the peasants owned the land and workers controlled the factories, both failed to deliver the production needed. Lenin had to take control and ceased all the grain from the peasants and put new workers at the factories to run them.
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The Tsar realised that he was unwanted as a ruler so he abdicated on the 15th of March, 1917. Most of Russia was a rural country and over 90% of the population were peasants that worked on the land. Although the peasants were the people that looked after the land, very rarely did they own any of it and they barely could scratch a living of what wages they received. All of the profits were taken by the landowners (aristocracy), who never actually visited their property but took the money from the peasants slaving work. The farming was also in great need of modernisation as all the peasant worked with old farming tools and used the same method of farming as they did centuries ago, which was a very ineffective system.
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This helped Stalin because now nobody would ever know that Lenin had picked out Trotsky to be the next leader over Stalin, and because it was in Lenin's will, everybody would want Trotsky in control and not Stalin. By this time Lenin was deprived from the power of speech and was powerless to influence anything much, especially since Stalin was in control of his medical care. In Lenin's will he was clearly in favour of Trotsky becoming the next Bolshevik leader, however, he did not state who he wanted as he referred to Trotsky having 'excessive self-confidence'.
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Alexandra played a huge part in convincing Nicholas to resist ever growing calls for increased democracy within Russia. Alexandra was a firm believer in the autocratic principle. Nicholas required little persuasion as a nationalist he condemned those who favored western style democracy. Nicholas and Alexandra had five children four daughters and one long awaited son who unfortunately had hemophilia. When Tsar Nicholas II came to the throne in 1894, he seemed to have much to offer. He was hard working, sincere and devoted to his family. However he also had significant weaknesses. He was indecisive and found it hard to govern the country.
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To what extent do Sources C, G, I and J give a full/accurate picture of life in Stalingrad during the battle?
It's also very detailed as it states 'Twenty-two divisions have been destroyed or taken prisoner.' This again is talking about how the Russians are defeating the Germans without any difficulty. There are only a couple of things such as; there is no mention of Russian civilians and very little is mentioned about life in the city which you could use to say that this report is unreliable, but apart from these two things Source C gives a very full and accurate picture of life in Stalingrad. Source G is a visual image showing the desolation in a residential suburb outside Stalingrad.
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Source H states (TM)Hitler(TM)s defeat at Stalingrad can be seen as the turning point of the struggle against Russia(TM)(TM). Use the sources to explain whether or not you support this view.
This then left the Germans vulnerable in other areas and increased their casualty number in Stalingrad. We also know from Source C that twenty-two German divisions were either taken prisoner or destroyed. ''Twenty-two divisions have been destroyed or taken prisoner.'' Source E which I think is the most reliable as it was written 50 years later and has the benefit of hindsight, tells us that the battle of Stalingrad was a ''Key battle'' and although the Germans had suffered local defeats on the eastern front before they had always resumed the offensive.
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Stalin's initial reaction to the surprise attack was to go into hiding for two weeks as he did not know how to handle the 1000's of innocent people being killed. After his two weeks of hiding Stalin found himself with a renewed confidence in the Russian army and came out with a much more positive outlook on war. Stalin used many different techniques to motivate and convince the people of Russia that all was not lost. The State Defence Committee was set up to avoid the mistakes made by Tsar Nicholas and this meant that civilian experts were allowed to help organise supplies which left the army free to fight.
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The real active intolerance began in spring 1918, with the brutal murder of Church leaders, Nuns, Monks and Priests. The Cheka shot those celebrating Religious holidays and not working. Churches were robbed of their gold, silver and riches with their religious texts also being burnt. The real intolerance of Religion was yet to come but really began under Stalin's rule when in 1929 Religion was outlawed outside of Churches or other areas that the Soviets designated (of course which would be sub standard and often abandoned areas). Christmas had already been completely outlawed. The Muslim faith was said to be nearly wiped out of Russia as only 2,000 Mosques remained across the nation.
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How important was Lenin(TM)s Legacy in explaining Stalin(TM)s Victory in the power Struggle in the years 1924-1929?
However Lenin was unable to act due to the strokes he suffered and Stalin controlled access to Lenin. Stalin spoke on many occasions of how he was to continue Lenin's work firstly at his funeral and then at several lectures, which he later published as "Foundations of Leninism" which outlined Lenin's basic ideas and criticized other leading Bolsheviks. His power as general secretary meant he supervised the Lenin Enrolment which let the party gain many new members in tribute to Lenin which where then educated through the Foundations of Leninism so subsequently, Stalin was key throughout the enrolment process and seen as the next best thing to Lenin.
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However, through vast forms of propaganda including posters, statues and films, an idolisation of Stalin was quickly contagious. At the time the USSR was years behind other countries like Britain and America in terms of industrialisation, and because Stalin was going with, "socialism in one country," they needed to industrialise very quickly in order to both defend themselves and create a more efficient economy.
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Another long term cause was unfairness of the long-awaited Duma. Peasants pleaded for a parliament that would be able to carry forth their issues to the Tsar, but when they finally got a Duma they're voice was still left unheard. Nobles still had a better chance to put their point forward, and the peasants just didn't get a chance to put their points forward. There was a much higher ratio of people put on the duma via the nobles rather than the peasants. The duma was also very unstable. It could be dissolved by the Tsar at any time.
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but getting decisions carried out in such a vast country with poor communications was very slow. There was no parliament to represent the views of the people and all newspapers and books were censored. If anybody criticised the Tsar, the Okhrana (the secret police used to deal with opposition) callously punished that person, often exiling them to the cold of Siberia or giving out long jail sentences. This system of government was increasingly resented because the needs of the majority of the population were not really considered.
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Those that failed to reach the required targets were criticized and humiliated. Some workers could not cope with this pressure and the percentage of people going work and school increased. This led to even more restriction measures being introduced. Records were kept of workers' lateness, percentage of people that go school and work and bad workmanship. If the worker's record was poor, he was accused of trying to sabotage the Five Year Plan and if found guilty could be shot or sent to work as forced labour on the Baltic Sea Canal or the Siberian Railway.
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His speeches excited the people, which was significant to the Revolution as everyone was ready for action. Lenin's message of 'Peace, Bread and Land' was just what the people of Russia wanted. The precise roles of Lenin and Trotsky in the October Revolution have been debated and the subject of considerable propaganda. The facts, however, are clear. It was Trotsky who proposed the organisation of a Military Revolutionary Committee from the Petrograd Soviet, and it was this committee which organized and led the coup d'etat which seized control of the Winter Palace and other key points in the capital.
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Source C shows Stalin as a large figure perhaps more than a man. He takes up most of the picture and is supposed to be propaganda for him more of a godly figure like source B. This is a different type of propaganda to source B showing his great political might not his industrial achievements. It also is less human than source B with him towering over his army opposed to him smoking a pipe. Overall, the sources are different as source A shows him to be a tyrant, B shows him to be a good man and achiever which can be linked to source C which shows his military might whilst also showing himself to be superhuman.
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JOSEPH STALIN GAINED AUTHORITY BECAUSE OF DISPUTES AND BRUTAL METHODS THAT HE USED TOWARDS TO OTHER MEMBERS OF THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF THE SOVIET UNION.
Lenin was never willing to share power, or to alternate in power with other political parties. This basic principle of Lenin made possible the rise of Stalin, who took advantage not only of the ideology Lenin created and the institutions he bequeathed, but even of Lenin's dead body. When Lenin died after a series of strokes, Stalin arranged for the great man's body to be mummified. Leninism became a cult and Stalin exploited it to build his own cult as Lenin's successor.
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