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GCSE: Russia, USSR 1905-1941
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The national budget increased from four million roubles in 1913 to thirty million in 1916. Where was this money coming from? An increase in taxes and huge borrowings from other countries were only partially successful in supplying the money needed for the conflict. The government resorted to printing more money to make up the extra cash they needed. This caused hyperinflation and resulted in severe financial problems across the country. All classes were affected in some way. People couldn't buy as much with their pay and saving were destroyed. The Tsarist government took a lot of criticism over the situation and there was growing unrest across the entire land.
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Why did the Tsar fall from powerIn March 1917 ? I believe the main reason that the Tsar fell from power was the Russo-Japanese war and
The war with Japan led to many problems at home in Russia; the poor living conditions of peasants and factory workers had become even worse. The food supply was short, the wages were decreasing by the minute and prices were increasing. People were bitterly disappointed and angry with the result of the Russo-Japanese war and this led to strikes. Revolutionary groups like the Bolsheviks wanted to get rid of the Tsar. I also added that the First World War had a major part to play in the Tsar abdicating as well. On August 1st 1914 Germany declared war on Russia.
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Reform followed by Reaction is a dangerous strategy for any government to follow and the best example of this are the governments of Alexander II and Nichols II. Both Alexander and Nicholas were inconsistent
But, from 1861till his assassination, Alexander II was repressive. He had grown tired of the open criticism of the government and how people had begun to assert their opinions on him. Alexander's repressive policy was driven by fear. In 1866 there was an attempt to kill the tsar by extremely radical liberals. The liberals felt that Alexander had not done enough with his reforms and when they asked Alexander to continue his reforms, Alexander said no. Alexander felt that his reforms would cause a revolution so he decided that he would stop trying to reform the country to protect his position as tsar.
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The intentional creation of peasant famine in Ukraine in 1932-33 though forced grain acqusition and collectivisation also eliminated millions of Russian's which had helped maintain the economy. Another limitation of Stalin's rule was his numerous military errors such his purge of the Soviet officer corps which resulted in the intellectual decapitation of the armed forces and his disbelief in a German attack in 1941. A large proportion of the Soviet Union's 26-27 million war dead may well have perished due to Stalin's ineptitude.
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"Why did the Tsar survive the revolution of 1905 but not that of March 1917?" In the 1905 revolution, the Russian Population was not seeking to overthrow
"A discontented working class living and working in poor conditions became volatile and led to instability. Packed together in the cities they would find it easier than the peasants to undertake concerted action."1 It was very hard to modernize and follow and autocratic system but modernization was needed for Russia, it was lagging behind the other super-powers such as France, Great-Britain and the USA. The need for change in economic and social aspects of the nation added to the 1904 Russo-Japanese war sparked the 1905 revolution.
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However the state itself was largely to blame itself for this situation. State prices increasingly fell behind market prices, so the peasantry had little incentive to part with their grain. By early 1929, this grain-exporting country was forced to import grain and introduce bread rationing. In retaliation, Stalin returned to the forcible requisitioning of War Communism. He harangued local officials and encouraged use of Article 107 of the criminal code against 'speculation' to justify the seizures. As Alec Nove and indeed Stalin himself said, "It was a great turning point in Russian history."
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The revolution was mainly caused by the internal and external factors. There were many internal factors that sparked off the revolution. One of the internal factors was the Tai Ping Rebellion. During the Tai Ping rebellion, the government was in war with the Tai Pings. As a result, the rebellion destroyed the economy badly and caused many internal problems of the country. Most of the country was at war and trades were not safe to be made where economy was stroke badly since goods were not imported or exported.
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These are Karl Marx's views and how they could be achieved. Vladimir Ilch Ulyanov, also known as Lenin which was a secret codename he had adapted so he could not be caught by the government on plots to overthrow them, was brought up in a well educated middle class home and he was the third out of six children. He left school first in his class and looked to become a scholar. He looked set to become a well educated and mature young man at the age of sixteen but things were soon to change.
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Many young men from the peasant villages went off to the cities looking to work at the new factories; expecting better pay and good working conditions. However that was not the case as all it did for the workers was give them equally bad money and a higher risk of getting injured while working unprotected with dangerous machinery. This was the start of peasant uprisings and Revolution with new political parties forming against Tsarism. Themes: The two wars are an important part for the causes of revolution, The Russo-Japanese war (1904-5)
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The lack of co-ordination from tsarist opposition is arguably the most crucial means by which Nicholas 2nd kept his head. The spontaneity of the strikes and demonstrations that took place made sure they held no real significance and wielded no particular power. It is the case throughout history that small pockets of opposition, no matter sizable there are, can never compare to the raw power of the united masses. For instance one could examine Nazi Germany, and would see how a lack of harmony between political groups meant the Nazi party found their way to power unhindered.
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The October Revolution, is also known as the Bolshevik Revolution, was the second phase of the Russian Revolution of 1917, the
The October Revolution was seen as a hugely important global event, and the first in a series of events that lay the groundwork for an epic Cold War struggle between the Soviet Union and the Western democracies, mainly being the USA. The Revolutions official name is 'The Great October Socialist Revolution' although Russian communists now only normally use this. The term Red October is also often used. What Happened: On October 25, 1917, Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin led his leftist revolutionaries in an uprising in Petrograd, the then capital of Russia, against the ineffective Kerensky Provisional Government.
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The novel "Like Water for Chocolate" written by Laura Esquivel is a historical piece of South-American literature which is parallel to the Mexican Revolution which took place at the start of the twentieth century
The novel seems to be primarily concerned with the feminine identity and contribution to the Mexican identity. The central focus of the novel is therefore the creation of feminine freedom, part of that is the kitchen which could be reflected to real women's lives. It directs attention to the social situation of Mexican women in the early 20th century who were lower in rank in terms of their social status. This shows that women had probably stay at home most of the day and do all the household tasks, just like Tita had to stay in her kitchen and do all the cooking.
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To what extent was the Revolution of February/march, in Russia 1917, due to the nature of Tsarism and the policies of Nicholas
He avoided direct involvement with public opposition, and instead commanded his army or secret police to eliminate problems. The consequence of this method was to create great resentment and tension amongst the public. The Royal family was supported by a small yet powerful noble class who owned the majority of the land. This nobility had been granted to them at the expense of the exploitation of the bulk of the people - the peasants. As industrialization and modernization were beginning to take place, so was the development and growth of new social classes, such as the proletariat, and middle-class capitalists, such as factory owners.
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The following are equally important reasons why Stalin was able to hold onto power in the Soviet Union:
He carefully nurtured his image allowing him to be portrayed at all times as he wanted to be seen. He stressed qualities he believed would make people respect him and hide those which might have damaged his reputation. An example of this is a statue of Lenin and Stalin supposed to portrait a photo of the two of them together but subtly changed to make it appear from the statue as if the men were much closer friends than would have seemed to have been the case from the photo. Stalin was also a passed master at rewriting history and blaming events on now out of favour members of the party often in a breath takingly unjust manner.
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This shows that emancipation was going to be used as a tool to solve two problems facing Alexander II. However, in order for emancipation to succeed another reform had to occur which was land reforms. However, Alexander II did not want the political system of Russia to change whilst the economic transformation was occurring. However, the political system also changed because there was an addition to the local villages. This was the zemstva and to a more national degree, the duma.
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Both Russian Revolutions stemmed from Russians' dissatisfaction with the Tsarist government's ineptitude
Thanks to that single difference, the revolution of 1905 and 1917 had drastically different results. The revolution of 1905 hardly made a dent in the Tsarist regime's supreme power and only brought about an elected assembly that had little says in state affairs and was called upon and dismissed at the Tsar's whim. The revolution of 1917, on the other hand, completely toppled the Tsarist government and set up a new socialist Russia with the Bolsheviks at the head. The Russian Revolution of 1905 and 1917 had similar causes, course of events, political ambience and only differ in who controlled the effective military force, yet the two revolutions had completely distinct results because of that one key difference.
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Both of the catalysts were Nicholas II's fault as he didn't take the opportunity to appease a sector of opposition and because Bloody Sunday was the result of his mismanagement. Bloody Sunday also tarnished the Protector like image which the peasants held of the Tsar. Nicholas's inability to lead was only part of the causes of the 1905 revolution. A small piece of a bigger picture.
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The essential cause of the French revolution was the collision between a powerful, rising bourgeoisie
Many people were making a case for a new concept of society, in which commoners, especially the educated middle classes (bourgeoisie), had the same value as the other orders. Despite the social rifts surrounding the political debate of mid-1789, most contemporaries fervently sought social unity. This suggests that social unrest may not necessarily have been the basic cause of the outbreak of the Revolution.
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Lenin's death marked the beginning of a period of struggle for leadership between the leading Bolsheviks, at the end of which
Stalin had obviously realised the potential power in the post of General Secretary in an increasingly bureaucratic party, as others had rejected the job as dull and uninteresting. This was a position he had held since 1922 and it was a major contributing factor towards his success and towards the defeat of his opponents. As General Secretary, Stalin was able to appoint his supporters to positions of power, thus securing the vote against his opposition, and removing his rivals from roles of authority, for example, demoting Trotsky from the position of Commissar for War in 1925.
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Peter Waldron notes: "The Imperial Russian state perished from its own weakness"1. This view seems valid as the Tsarist regime proved incapable of reacting to calls for change with anything more than a reluctant acceptance for reformation. During the war the unmodernised Russian economy was too weak to supply the army and maintain an adequate standard of living for the peasantry and urban workers. As a result all the problems accumulated over the past half century came into focus during wartime. Due to the critical state of Russia's political system and the vast social inequalities a revolution was inevitable; it was just a question of when.
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However the succession of his heir, Nicholas II brought with it a ruler who proved to be both weak and indecisive. Nicholas's faltering nature under mounting remonstration from the Russian public, allowed for the total disintegration of the tsarist regime, thus making Nicholas II entirely accountable for the dissolution of his tsarist establishment. Succeeding the assassination of Alexander III, a considerable number of liberal reformers and aggressive revolutionaries came into existence.
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However, 90,000 strikers still turned up. 18th February: a full-scale strike began by the employees of the Putilov Steel Works, the largest and most politically active factory in St.Petersburg. It shut down on the 25th due to lack of fuel (supplies were not reaching those in the cities due to the condition of the railways and the army's first claim right) and thousands of workers were laid off. They and other workers (protesting at rumours of a shortage of bread) swelled the masses of the strike.
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Was size the most important reason in making the Russian Empire of Tsar Nicholas II so difficult to rule in the years before the outbreak of the First World War? (1914
These were not the skills that are needed to running a country as big and as unsuccessful as Russia. However he ruled as an autocrat and believed God had made him Tsar and that he had absolute authority to rule Russia. He had the support of the autocracy who owned the land, Church and the army. But he also had opposition these included the Liberals, Social Revolutionaries and Social Democrats. The liberals wanted an elected government to run with the Tsar while the other two wanted to end his rule. Overall I believe as he and his government were weak the county was weak and open to any attack.
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Although Russia was beginning to form a Duma and began to industrialize, it was still not living up to its true potential. In relation to the size of the country, it was predicted that Russia would be one of the great powers of the world. Instead, it was a country abundant of unemployment, low wages and inflation. The popularity of the Tsar was ever-decreasing and opposition was worryingly increasing for him. Although the Tsar introduced the October manifesto, which stated that all classes had the freedoms of speech, conscience, assembly and association as well as the right to participate in the Duma, it was all in bad faith.
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Do you agree with the view that the main cause of the collapse of Tsarist Rule was that the Tsar's supporters lost faith in th
Although in 1905 the soldiers had suppressed the uprisings of the proletariat the situation in 1917 was very different. The inability of Tsar Nicholas who had taken over Russia's military campaign in the Great War had caused mass dis-satisfaction within the rank and file of the army. This discontent led to mass mutinies, the most famous of which was during the Petrograd garrisons where soldiers laid down their arms, became neutral or joined the revolutionaries. The majority of Army Generals were increasingly dissatisfied by the Tsar's actions, in fact the Army General of the Finland regiment led a 5000 strong desertion in the February days.
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