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GCSE: USA 1919-1941
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The goal of those camps was to give home to the migrant workers during the Great Depression. In the case of Weedpatch Camp, this was created during the drought that caused the Dust Bowl1.
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Life did get better for many Americans in the 1930s. How far was Roosevelt responsible for this, or was it due to other factors?
Many of the public works schemes such as the PWA and the TVA provided services of lasting value to the country including bridges, schools, dams and hospitals. Other long-term developments such as welfare benefits and collective bargaining were also introduced and soon became accepted as normal. In 1935, he persuaded Congress to pass the Social Security Act, which gave pensions for the elderly, widows and the disabled. He also set up the Fair Labour Standards Act in 1938 which tightened up the law against child labour and established a national minimum wage for all the workers that worked in interstate business.
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Roosevelt's own strength was probably the biggest factor which led him to his election victory. He and a group of experts known as the 'Brain Trust' put together a programme called the 'New Deal', which was created to help America out of the Depression. The New Deal had three main aims: relief, recovery and reform. Roosevelt believed in direct relief, meaning that the government would give direct help to the millions of people that were starving and homeless. He looked to revive the economy by getting industries going, reducing unemployment and boosting demand for goods.
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There was no system of unemployment pay in America, so people had to rely on charity to stay alive'1. And as unemployment figures increased, it became clearer to the suffering people in the USA that their president was not doing very much to help or offer relief. Many evicted from their homes due to failure of mortgage payments (in particular farmers) formed shantytowns nicknamed 'Hoovervilles'. 'They moved on to waste ground in the cities where they built huts with old wood, scrap metal and sacking, which they found on rubbish dumps.
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How Important Was Henry Fords Contribution to Americas economy and Social Developments in the 1920s?
This change was because he had a strong policy of standardizing all the cars he made. Because of this policy the Model T was extremely popular among Americans of different social statuses. It was a car that could be used in cities and countryside, this enabled farmers to be able to travel to towns and sell their goods while it also gave a sense of immense freedom to the rural part of America.
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Additionally, they started putting taxes on imported goods which promoted the purchase of national made items, hence helping American producers. This measure also had a negative side as it had a high risk of deteriorating international trading between the United States and other European and South American countries. Moreover, they did not interfere with people's businesses, neither had they put any restrictions on financial institutions and banks which gave them more freedom and money to spend and therefore have a greater profit.
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Spending and government intervention became the new economic way out of trouble and Roosevelt established the alphabet agencies to help agriculture, industry and unemployment. The AAA,(Argricultral adjustment administration) CCC(civilan conservation corps) snd others were set up.. The tennesse valley authority-(TVA) was particularly successful in providing hydroelectric power.There were many successes of the first new deal such as it stabilised banks and the system of credit.
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The Roaring Twenties was a time of prosperity and enjoyment. It was a time where the old and new generations differentiated the most.
This growth led to increasing economic consumption, especially among the upper class and upper middle class. They bought cars, entertained more lavishly, spent money going out on the town, including to changing forms of entertainment. During this time credit had also come into play. The lower middle class and the lower class could now use credit to buy houses or tools to farm. This increased the amount of spending done by Americans. The entertainment industry changed drastically.
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Prohibition. Source A is from an American history book it was published in 1973. Source B is from a book about American history and it was published in 1979. Both sources clearly agree on prohibitions consequences,they clearly agree that after the law
Overall sources A and B are both quite similar they both agree that prohibition was a failure. Although they both disagree on some factors. In source A there are many reasons as to why prohibition was introduced, in source B there is only one. b) In source C and D both artists are for prohibition. They both strongly criticize alcohol! In source C the bar tender is described as a fat wealthy German, which shows that he is quite well off and he is portrayed in such a way, that it looks like he is robbing people who buy alcohol.
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In this piece of coursework I will be discussing why Franklin D Roosevelt needed to introduce the New Deal.
Hoover who was currently president at that time belonged to the Republican Party and traditionally the Republican Party is favoured by the upper classes. The Republican Party believed it wasn't the government's role to interfere too much in the everyday lives of its citizens; this policy is known as "laissez-faire", meaning leave alone. One of the main reasons to why Hoover became president of the United States of America was due to his efforts in the First World War when he helped to feed starving people.
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European countries retaliated by putting tariffs on American made goods but infact had very little impact on the American economy because internally they were doing so well. The main turning point of the boom was the First World War and American Isolation. In the First World War America lent millions of pounds to countries like Britain they would then be paid back with interest on top of the original money. America also exported many of its good and products such as munitions and natural resources which it had lots of to Britain and France.
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Why was there an economic boom in the 1920s? There were many reasons that caused the economics boom in the 1920s in USA.
This advantage was why USA was exporting all kinds of goods to Europe, Latin America and the Far East. More and more industries are developing ways of more efficient and productive ways of producing their product. Another major cause was the First World War. During this period Europe had some of the most successful industries in the world. But the war stopped the growth of these industries. America produced and sold lots of war related goods and weaponry such as arms, munitions and explosives to Britain and France. The war also caused other great demands such as massive amount of food, plastic and other materials.
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I feel he was leading America to a road of socialism and opponents found it easy to criticise him for this. These were all unconstitutional by the Supreme Court (the biggest opponent) because his laws ran into numerous states, radicals who found he was still not doing enough for the "forgotten men" and those in need, The rich who left out the new deal which only helped homeless, poor, exploited and the working class. One of the reasons opposition found it easy to conflict against his new deal laws were because he was beginning to form into a dictator rather
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Prohibition was a disaster waiting to happen How far do you agree? I feel the Prohibition act of January 16th, 1919-20 seemed like a good idea to start with and therefore strongly agree with this statement, I think the law had to be executed becaus
Socially American families were being ruined by alcohol because fathers were substituting spending money on essential things like Education, Food, and Clothing for alcohol and it was becoming an increasing problem, this put pressure on women to supply for their families and the group anti-saloon was formed by women as a result. Pressure groups carried large action towards prohibition, two major groups such as the anti-saloon group and the Women Christian temperance union highlighted key problems with alcohol and mainly focused on the problems it caused for families in particular and how drinking was against God 'work of the devil',
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America changed from isolationism as they had intervened in a war, and not avoiding disputes related to war. The main reason was that USA wanted to eliminate Nazi forces, and having a reason to retaliate again Japan for ruining American business with Manchuria. From 1946 - 1971 America tried to contain communist forces where USA intervened in the Korean War (1950 - 1953) and the Vietnam War (1964-1965). In both wars, USA tried to stop spread of communism from the North to South.
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Eleanor disliked sex, but despite this they had six children, with the first four being in rapid succession. (Wikimedia Foundation Inc.) In 1921, while on vacation with his family, Roosevelt awoke one morning and got out of bed, to find that his right leg would not move, soon after, his left. Then he fell to the floor. He crawled his way back to his bed. FDR was diagnosed with a paralytic illness, known as polio. He had symptoms like fever, protracted symmetric, ascending paralysis of the upper and lower extremities, facial paralysis, bladder and bowel dysfunction, numbness, and dysesthesia.
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The prosperity of the 1920s bought a change in lifestyle for many Americans: more people owned their owned their own homes and cars, and had labor-saving devices to help with housework.
The life of the cars had a big impact on people life and how they lived it. It opened new doors for the freedom to travel, whether to visit friends or take day trip to the cities. These also led to people moving out the city and live in the suburbs during the 1920s because they could drive into work. The new invention led to young people escaping their parents and go off to cinemas or clubs. However, not everyone enjoyed the cars as the many young people did. Many thought that it was leading to a moral decline in young people, giving them the 'opportunity for sexual freedom'; others blamed it for making crime easier.
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Furthermore, as more people began to drive cars, more roads were paved which led to further jobs on construction opening up and this meant more people had money to spend. This was a cycle of prosperity. Additionally, people spent money on new technologies such as the 'Hoover', cookers and radios as 70% of towns and cities in 1929 had lighting and electricity in homes. Skyscrapers were built which implied the great wealth and prosperity of the nation at that time.
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Furthermore, the WCTU also campaigned for women's suffrage and anti-prostitution, thus many women supported them. Additionally, WCTU campaigned in schools to persuade children that alcohol was bad. This was successful as children were easy to persuade and they were the future generation thus they would not support alcohol. This meant that Prohibition gained a wider audience and led to more 'dries'. As a result Prohibition was introduced due to organisations such as the WCTU, who used other methods as well as temperance. Furthermore, Prohibition was introduced due to the ASL's propaganda. They printed lots of propaganda, portraying alcohol to be the root of all evil.
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Also, many Jews were immigrating to America because of the build up of the Nazis in Germany. Furthermore, many Italians went to America due to persecution in Italy and to escape its fascist political views and government. The USA promised freedom in many ways, such as they were free to practise their religion and have a freedom of speech and press, therefore this pulled mainly young hopeful people who wanted to live life freely, to the USA and as a result of persecution in many countries, a massive amount of immigrants came to the USA to start over in life
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However the mood of America was rapidly changing. Most the American people wanted to end of the 'entanglements' in European affairs that did not concern them. The Republican Party shared this view and argued against Wilson's vision and had won a vote was cast in the senate and America's joining of the League was not ratified. AMERICAN ELECTIONS In the 1920 presidential election, Warren Harding, the republican candidate was elected due to 61% vote. He won with slogans 'America first' and bringing back America to 'normalcy'. As a result, America cut all ties with Europe and went back to isolation (Staying out of foreign affairs).
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In 1915, a new group was founded under the same name. It was initiated by films such as The Birth of a Nation and anti-Semitic newspaper accounts surrounding the trial and lynching of accused murderer Leo Frank, a Jewish man accused of the rape and murder of a young white girl named Mary Phagan. Unlike the first, this second Klan moved to maintain the dominance of white Protestant morality against challenges from criminals, bootleggers, disreputable sinners, and more generally over blacks, Catholics, and Jews. This group in the 1920's operated openly, and consisted of about 4 million members at its peak.
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The author used slogans, and over exaggerated the picture to influence the people for prohibition; it is also clear that the author feels family is very important, which is why they feel prohibition it a good thing.
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The beginning of his first term is famously known as 'The First Hundred Days'. During these days, Congress granted every request Roosevelt asked, allowing him to behave much like a dictator. Roosevelt understood that Americans would be worried and confused about the New Deal, so he spoke to them through 'Fireside Chats'. These were a series of 30 radio speeches in which explained what he was doing to deal with the Depression. Nothing like this had ever been done by a President before. On his first inaugural address Roosevelt placed the blame for the Great Depression on bankers, and proceeded to close all banks in America until he could pass new legislation.
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Only the healthy banks were left open. Also, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) was formed by congress to insure deposits of up to $5000. Another feature of the New Deal was to provide work for the unemployed. Roosevelt formed the Civil Works Administration (CWA). This public work program gave the unemployed jobs building or repairing roads, parks, airports, etc. The CWA provided a psychological and physical boost for 4 million workers. Roosevelt also formed Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC). This environmental program put 2.5 million unmarried men to work maintaining and restoring forests and parks.
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