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GCSE: USA 1919-1941
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He had already been acused of doing nothing about the depression, whereas Roosevelt was prepared. He wanted to use full resources of the Federal Government to end the depression as soon as possible. Hoover seemed handicapped by his own views about individual freedom and failed to inspire the people with his confidence. People felt let down by Hoover, he had no answers and democracy began to pull through. Roosevelt was on the democratic side of the election, and was a good strong public speaker. He was a firm believer and thought that anyone who worked hard enough could become rich.
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Henry Ford also enforced their arguments as he pointed out that the majority of car accidents on the road were caused by alcohol. Finally in 1919 these minority groups achieved their aim when the US government passed the 18th Amendment to the Constitution. This law, known as prohibition applied to all liquor containing more then 0.5% of alcohol. However, by making drink illegal, the lawmakers encouraged the growth of a new world of crime in America. Although one would think that prohibition would enhance the difficulty of obtaining alcohol, liquor was actually very easy to acquire.
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2. Source B and C present two different judgements on the New deal. B was written by an American historian writing in 1945, and C is from a book, 'The Roosevelt Myth' by and American historian published in 1945. Source B, i think was written after Roosevelt dies. We can tell this by the way that the passage is written in the past tense that he was dead. The difference between each of them is very simple. Source B is telling me that there was a lot of self confidence in the New Deal because it says that during 1933 people will have remembered that the change form depression and discouragement to excitement and hope.
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The truth may have been stretched to make a joke of it and win people's support. I do not agree that this poster (source A) does not give any evidence about the Great Depression. It may not be reliable evidence but it does have some historical value. It presents evidence about the 'Bonus Army', the views of the Republican and Democratic Parties and the methods used by the Democratic Party to gain support. Question 2: Source B was written at the time of the Depression by an American actor, Will Rogers. It is quite accurate about what was happening, he says 'We are starving to death', which was actually happening at this time.
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Many investors lost what little confidence they cherished and were unwilling to continue to invest. This led to the remainder of factories closing and unemployment increasing. By 1930 four million people were unemployed in America, this increased to six million in 1931 and twelve million in 1932. The production rates had reduced sharply too. America did not have any scheme of unemployment insurance or social security and people began o turn towards charities to help them. "Breadlines" became popular and many people would cue for hours in order to receive the charity of some bread and some soup.
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They thought this could damage America's army. America banning alcohol was largely due to their intolerance as a country. America's society had always shown intolerance towards blacks, immigrants and communists. America was also an isolationist and avoided entering World War 2. There were so many nationalities in their country that it was too hard to decide whose side they were on. America refused to join the League of Nations. Some of the first states to become dry by 1914 were states which were mostly southern. These were often racist and banning alcohol was another form of them taking freedoms away from black people.
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Once elected, Roosevelt had many problems facing him and his party that the American people expected him to solve. * Most of the populace was unemployed. Over 12 million Americans did not have a job, and this figure was increasing by 12,000 every day. Families relied on charity to stay alive and breadlines were common in every city. * Over 1 million people were homeless. In 1932, 250,000 Americans stopped paying their mortgages and were evicted from their homes. Because of this, many became 'hobos' or tramps while others moved to waste ground to build huts from scraps of wood and metal, these unhealthy camps were known as 'Hoovervilles' after Herbert Hoover.
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This made people feel closer to him and would have helped him gain votes. Roosevelt also understood the problems and hardships of people in both rural and industrial areas as he had experiences of both from earlier in his life. Because of this knowledge he aimed his policies at both types of life style. This is something that other politicians did not do, this allowed him to get votes from both areas and not having to rely on getting votes from just one. From 1928-32 Roosevelt was the governor of New York City. Being New York Cities governor allowed him to see more of the problems for city dwelling Americans especially immigrants.
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Were the policies of the Republican Governments of the 1920s the most important reason for the boom in the USA?
The first policy that the republican government believed in was the policy of ?Laissez Faire?. The policy meant that government did not interfere a lot with businesses because they kept the corporate tax low meaning that the businesses got to keep l lot more of their revenue. This led to the boom as more businesses opened because it was more profitable and this in turn led to more wealth for the government. Another government policy was that ?Rugged Individualism? and this was the belief that people worked hard to earn money hence they should keep most of it and this was implemented by keeping the income tax low.
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Segregation was widespread in society, such as separate drinking fountains for whites and blacks, as well as the fact that black Americans were often the first to be laid off during harder economic times. The black population was also denied the ability to vote, undermining the ?democratic? basis on which the USA was founded upon. The black American community also became victims of large scale violence, such as the KKK which sought to terrorise black people, using violence and carrying out their own version of justice such as lynching in order to intimidate foreigners, who they believed to be inferior, as well as various kidnappings and murders.
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The following depicts and analyzes the four main causes that economist believe lead to the demise of the Great Depression which are, the Stock market crash, banking panics and monetary contradiction, the gold standard, and international lending and trade (Bernstein). People thank declines in consumer demand, financial panics, along with misguided government policies to the dismay of the drastic decline of output. The decline of economic output was mainly due to a decline in aggregate demand (Bernstein). One of the main causes that contributed to the Great Depression?s radical decline of economic output was the New York stock market crash of 1929 (Romer).
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Without the new automobile industry, the prosperity of the 1920s would scarcely have been possible.Agree or Disagree?
Because the assembly line made producing cars cheaper, other factories used the technique to produce their goods, for example radios, at a cheaper price, so more people would buy them. The idea of the assembly line alone helped to further the boom. The automobile industry involved so many other industries and helped to keep them running. To make cars, lots of different materials were needed; steel for the chassis, rubber for the tyres, leather to upholster the seats and glass for the windows.
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The National Recovery Administration (NRA) also helped the financial reform by creating a code in which would guarantee fair wages and conditions for workers. The companies who agreed were favoured with contracts. This created a partnership between the government and the industry and reduced destructive competition and to helped workers by setting minimum wages and maximum weekly hours. The Public Works Administration (PWA) was another New Deal agency which concentrated on employing unemployed skilled industrial workers work on constructing large scale public building schemes like bridges and dams.
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This, together with social inequality and racism, resulted in increased tensions across the nation. In this essay I will be exploring the problems that people faced during the 1920s. Furthermore, I will be stating whether it had a large impact on society or not. The first problem I will be looking at that people had to deal with is racism. Many blacks lived in southern USA, or otherwise known as the Deep South. They lived in poverty, mostly farming cotton or tobacco. Many were sharecroppers, which meant they had to give a share of their crop to the landowner from whom they rented the land they farmed.
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It favoured large businesses over small ones, and many businesses did not follow the codes. The same law that created the National Recovery Administration created a program that spent billions of dollars on large building projects. The projects included highways, public buildings and dams. Businesses that worked on the projects hired more workers. The most famous was the Grand Coulee Dam on the Colorado River. The New Deal improved conditions for some Americans after 1933. Unemployment dropped by two million by 1935. Still, over nine million were without jobs. Roosevelt was not about to give up.
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Wilson was determined not to make any compromises though, as it had been tough enough to negotiate the Treaty to this level with Clemenceau and David Lloyd George, and thus went on a nationwide tour to urge people to vote for the Treaty of Versailles and the League of Nations. Eventually, however, he had a stroke due to the stress, and died shortly after, and the Treaty didn?t get passed by the Senate, meaning that the USA played no part in the League of Nations.
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Did FDRs upbringing, background and character make it easy for him to understand the concerns and fears of ordinary Americans?
As a result of his wealth, Roosevelt had never experienced a lack of food, water, shelter or warmth. Roosevelt?s mother had sheltered him from the real world and never deprived him of anything he wanted. Roosevelt had also attended New York?s best private schools and got a really good education. Although he could empathise, Roosevelt?s background and the way he was raised made it hard for him to relate to the ordinary Americans that were suffering greatly from the depression. On the other hand, Roosevelt?s education had really opened up his eyes on the real world. Roosevelt?s school headmaster was a preacher for doing the duty of Christians and helping the less fortunate.
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Another famous form of campaigning Roosevelt used was to travel the US by train and meet members of the public of each state. Through this he further encouraged the public?s view of him as energetic and really into their affairs. He also gave speeches in the different states which he used to further condemn Hoover. Roosevelt promised a ?new deal to the American people?, without specifying what the ?new deal? was. This vagueness about his policies meant it was very hard to criticise his policies so people rarely heard bad things of what he was planning to do.
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This essay is going to argue that Herbert Hoover?s flawed, political believes were the fundamental reason Franklin Delano Roosevelt won the presidential election campaign in 1932. Hoover was in office when the depression hit. Also, as a Republican, he was tied to the economic policies of the two previous administrations, so many people felt that even if he was not totally responsible for bringing the depression on, it was his job to get the country out of it and he tried the best he could.
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Overproduction led to falling prices and falling profits for example wheat prices fell from $183 a bushel in 1920 to 38 cents in 1929. Taxes, mortgages and wages were rising, further reducing farmers? profits and foreign competition increased during the 1920s as European agriculture recovered from the war, while Canada, Russia, Argentina and Australia also competed on the world market. Wheat producers in Canada had opted to go down the line of mass-production. This led to their prices falling and they therefore sold much more produce than American farmers.
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