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GCSE: USA 1919-1941
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I shall now look at the key question - 'Was the New Deal a Complete Success.' There are many references that show us the amount of healing Roosevelt did during the depression period. This was mainly represented by the groups of people he helped. For example: Farmers - For some farmers, the New Deal was a success and Roosevelt helped them, mainly through the alphabet agencies, to a great extent. Using his agencies, he was able to set up the FCA - this leant loans to a fifth of ALL farmers in America, allowing them to keep their farms and ultimately the whole agricultural industry going.
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Finally reform was the strife to improve the American lifestyle to something even more magical than the boom in the 1920's before the depression. This would be done by introducing amendments to laws and lifestyles; for example pensions, unemployment benefits and help for the sick, disabled and poor. Roosevelt's aims and inspirations were greatly influenced by many elements relating to his everyday life. Roosevelt had his own disability and was therefore able to empathise with the people of America, and some could even say this was the biggest prompt to provoke the creation of the New Deal...
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The new deal was successful to a certain extent. It greatly extended the role of the government and president and was able to restore the faith of people in government and it also preserved democracy and ensured there was no mass support of right-wing politicians. It also helped greatly in the recovery of the economy. The new deal did a very good job in restoring faith in banks because as soon as the new deal was introduced, the number of bank failures dropped drastically from about 4,000 to below 100.
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In order to satisfy Gaines the University offered to pay his fees for an out of state education. This was the start of several more successful cases with regards to education. The 1950s were filled with controversy over segregation and whether it should be abolished. In 1954 the public witnessed the Brown Vs Topeka Board of education case which had people rioting with a display of hatred. For Black people especially children school was a hard place. One girl who faced a large obstacle was 8 year old Linda Brown from Topeka.
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Mass Production of cars meant that businesses like ford could sell their products at very low prices which made them very cheap and so very popular, which increased demand. This increase in demand meant an increase in demand for basic materials like steel, rubber and glass which increased profit in both the company supplying the basic material and the company using the basic material because it meant they could buy in bulk, lowering prices. As over 1 in 5 Americans owned a car this lead to other businesses prospering too; motels, diners and gas stations are just some of them.
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Did Roosevelt's upbriging and background make it easier for him to understand the concerns of the American people?
However, he was more inclined towards his social life than his studies, for instance, during his university years, while everyone at Harvard was hard at work, he spent his time sailing and enjoying life, so he was popular without needing to excel himself academically. After finishing his studies he worked briefly for a law firm and later, he entered politics as a Democrat in 1910. He was able to find his own election and had a recognizable name due to his relations with the former 26th American president Theodore Roosevelt, and gradually climbed the pole of state politics and finally became a part of the New York Senate.
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It came into action in 1933. The new deal had many different features: The Federal Relief Agency (FRA) was the government giving money to the poor by spending $500 million on soup kitchens, blankets, employment schemes and nursery schools. This helped people who lived in poverty and who on one would employ. It would also help the youth of America and more importantly, people would see that America was improving. The Civilian Conservational Corps (CCC) was mainly for young unemployed men.
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This means that people in America wanted alcohol. They wanted to drink but the law stopped them it took away something that they wanted so they did not like the law. The source is from an American history book published in 1979. This means the writer knows that prohibition was unsuccessful and so it may be biased. Source A disagrees with prohibitions as it tells us about the negative outcomes and consequences of prohibition rather than the positive, good things that could have happened if it was successful.
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Prohibition. Sources A and B are from the same time period, the 1970s. This makes them secondary sources. The sources talk about Prohibition and the effects it had on the USA.
Source A contains a lot more on what some of the possible causes of prohibition were? Source B contains one or two of those in source A. This suggests that source B had a bias tone. An example is how the author refers to alcohol; "the great evils". Source B also seems to be opinionated and unbalanced. From studying the two sources in detain the conclusion I have put together is both sources agree with prohibition to an extent, but they also disagree with it.
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Do you think that Roosevelt's background and character made it less difficult for him to understand the fears and concerns of the Americans? Explain you answer.
However, Roosevelt continued to indulge in his private lifestyle, where he enjoyed interests ranging from sailing to polo. Growing up on an 188-acre Roosevelt estate with his own governess also meant that he had the chance to enjoy many luxuries many others did not receive. He then moved on to studying law at Harvard in 1910 and had his first proper encounter with Politics. With little desire to succeed academically, he performed badly at school as he had always the reassurance of his great wealth that awaited him back home.
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Roosevelt gave people faith and hope as he was doing something for the people. He had succeeded in giving America more confidence and gave people hope for survival. Relief, which was a main aim of Roosevelt's 'New Deal', was a success, as millions of people had received relief, with the help of the alphabet agencies assisting them with mortgages and jobs. Relief gave people a chance to breathe out and be able to relax a bit, knowing that they had a little bit of money coming in and helping them out a bit, it meant that many people were slowly being able to support themselves.
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America's confidence was slowly draining and towards the end of the 1920's trade had slowed internationally as many countries were also suffering from the bankruptcy of America's largest banks, leaving countries with less money to be able to afford to import goods the USA's international trade had drastically been reduced over three years (1929 - 1932) from $10billion to $3 billion. This situation had slowed the economy systems everywhere else also! This problem led to more closures of firms and industries leaving many unemployed with no income what so ever.
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It employed hundreds and thousands in the production of cars and a similar number in the supply industry's e.g. glass production, sheet metal, rubber and leather. Service stations supplying petrol appeared all over the country, and engineers were needed to service car engines. Thanks to The 1916 Federal Road Act new roads were being built all over America,which employed thousands in their construction and supply industry's e.g. concrete, metal bridges and road signs. The most popular of Fords cars was the Model T-more than 15 million were produced by 1925, selling at the rate of one every ten seconds.
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The rural areas were mainly Christian and had strong beliefs, where as in the cities many people started to believe in evolution. The rural areas were displeased with the cities, because they didn't approve of their morals and social life's such as flappers whom the believed were a disgrace to God, and alcohol which they believed was wrong to drink. Transport grew as new methods of production were discovered, such as the moving production line (other wise known as the assembly line)
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Big Businesses were 'booming', there was a high consumer demand and there were new technological advances. These were key points to the economic boom, which linked other influences, such as the progression of mass production, to the contribution and prosperity of the 'boom'. The development of the motor- car gave thousands of people employment and also stimulated the growth of other businesses. This led to people 'commuting' into the cities as people benefiting from the economy could afford new cars and bigger houses in the suburbs. Mass production also meant that as things were made more cheaply it was cheaper for ordinary Americans to buy.
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Taylor's ideas and Fords aim (to make a car cheap enough for average Americans to buy) eventually amounted in the birth of the assembly line. This meant that instead of the workers in the Ford factory going to each car, and spending lots of time making the parts of the cars, then attaching them, the cars were brought past the workers. The workers towards the beginning of the assembly line may do a job such as attach the spokes of the wheel to the main frame, and then a worker near the end of the line would attach the fully completed wheel to the body of the car.
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The market can also be segmented by what gender the customer is. Just like the age groups men and women have different needs and tastes. Like women might be sold cloths with more female colours and men might be sold male colours. Also an advert for a female associated item will be advertised different than to an item aimed at men. A market can also be segmented by how much people earn. People that earn less have different spending patterns that those that earn a lot.
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Both of the sources are from after prohibition this makes them more reliable. In conclusion, both sources agree with one another why the amendment was sighed as the both agree that prohibition caused modern histories biggest criminal boom. They also agree that the anti-saloon league had a lot to do with getting the amendment singed. B) Study sources C and D Were the artists of these two posters for or against Prohibition? Source C is a cartoon by the WCTU "the women's Christians temperance union".
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It was the more recent immigrants that got the abuse. There was a hierarchy of these new citizens in the big American cities. At the top, and competing for the best jobs and highest salaries, were the bigger and better established groups of Irish-Americans, German-Americans and French Canadians. These groups scorned the newer Eastern Europeans and Italian immigrants, who in turn held contempt for the Mexicans and blacks, who were at the bottom of this scale. The Russian revolution of 1917, sparked communist ideas in Russia and Eastern Europe. The new Russian government had usurped the Tsar Nicholas and killed him and his family.
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How successful were the new deals in solving the problems that were present in the American society after the depression?
He then spoke directly to his people in the first of his 'fireside chats' as president. He assured them the banks were now safe and that there was no longer any reason to withdraw money from them. When the banks were opened the following week more money was deposited in them than had previously been withdrawn. Since the banking crisis was over the Americans were prepared to put their trust in him. Only a few days later he passed an Economy Act, classed as a pay cut. The pay of those working for the government and armed forces was cut by 15%, whilst the budgets of all government departments were cut by 25%.
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And for many younger women the traditional rules of behaviour were forgotten they wore more revealing clothes, they hung out with men without anybody watching over them and lastly they drank and smoked in public. Black Americans also benefited from the new life in the north; it was a lot fairer to them than before, they were allowed jobs and a good education. Many cities even set up their own institutes just for black Americans. In some cities like Chicago and New York many there was a growing black middle class.
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The most obvious of these being that, even with both sources A and B agreeing that alcohol is a negative substance; source B is far more dramatic in its wording. Source A describes the related and illegal saloons as "a bad influence"; however source B is far stronger in its description of alcohol, "one of the greatest evils of the time". In this way, the two sources disagree in their extremism for prohibition, due to its depiction of alcohol. In conclusion, source A and B agree only to an extent; however it can only be argued that they do not agree completely, as they do differ in certain ways.
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The most important consequence of the Wall Street crash was the closures of the US banks(TM) Do you agree with this statement?
The banks continued to lend out peoples savings, they continued to make money as long as prices continued to rise, but On 24th October investors became nervous and started to selling shares forcing the prices into a steep decline and without investors businesses fell into liquidation , the representatives of larger banks started to buy up shares using peoples savings , giving investors more confidence, but on 27th the prices fell into freefall again but the banks didn't support the market, as investors began selling shares at a loss, causing the prices to fall.
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* Overproduction by American industries: American industries were producing more consumer goods (such as cars and electrical appliances) than they could sell. The economic boom had been based on the growing sale of these goods, sold specially to the rich and the middle classes. As most of the people had already bought these goods and the poor could not afford them, production started decreasing together with sales. The fact is that when companies develop the prices of the shares go up, but if they don't, prices of shares go down. Speculators on the American stock exchange became nervous about this, because companies started losing the success they had had, and that meant that the prices of the shares would soon start declining.
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