GCSE: USA 1941-80
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- Marked by Teachers essays 6
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These were intended as temporary legislation but these Acts proved in the long run the most important turning-point in American immigration policy. The United States entered a period of isolationism with the passage of the various Neutrality Acts of the 1930's. These were passed in response to the growing problems in Europe and Asia that eventually led to World War II.
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caused the Cold War; the "Revisionist" idea that "American policy offered the Russians no real choice...either acquiesce to American proposals or be confronted with American power or hostility" (McCauley 90) which blames America for the war; and a "Post-Revisionist" combination of the two, with both America and Soviet Russia to blame. Since both the Orthodox and Revisionist views have proof is confirmation that the Post-Revisionist viewpoint is correct. One of the primary differences between the attitudes of America and Russia originates from the happenings in each nation during WWII.
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However, Stalin misunderstood - or as many historians suspect ignored - this and he gave leading positions to Communists in governments in eastern Europe, then held rigged elections and soon Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia and Poland fell under the control of the USSR due to these steps that strengthened the Communist Soviets' control in the government of these countries . This angered very much the Americans, who afraid of a possible continuity of this expansion towards Western Europe (or even worse - a map of the world dominated by the communist ideology)
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Student Protesters in the 1960s were just a bunch of kids rebelling against their parents views. How far do the sources support this statement?3 star(s)
Source B, a statement by the SDS, shows the ideals of the movement. It says that they are campaigning for 'freedom and equality for everyone'. This was especially evident in the situation with the Black Civil Rights Protesters, and showed that the SDS had bigger aims than simply rebelling against authority. It is worth noting however, that this is a political speech and as such, not everything said within it may be entirely factual. Source C, a song written by Bob Dylan, is one of the most influential sources shown.
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This happened even though at first, only a few black people went to desegregated schools. This is because of white racists not wanting coloured's and whites attending the same school. The main incident of this was at Little Rock Arkansas. Even though President Eisenhower had passed the Civil Rights Act, the governor of Arkansas, Orville Fabus, did not agree. He did not agree with white children and coloured children being taught in the same school. So one day before the new term started Fabus sent in 270 National Guardsmen to stop any coloured children getting into the school.
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Do you agree that Martin Luther King was the most important factor in helping blacks gain more civil rights in the 1960s?4 star(s)
One of the first civil rights groups Martin Luther King was involved with was the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). By the time he became involved, he was a preacher, and was named president of the SCLC, comprised entirely of black ministers. As part of this group he travelled 780,000 miles and made 208 speeches in 1957 alone. This vast undertaking meant he spread his message to thousands of black people, encouraging them to join his peaceful protests and call for change.
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The NAACP was the organisation that achieved most for African Americans during the 20th century. Do you agree?4 star(s)
groups demise in 1930 after Garvey's imprisonment for fraud; and in the 1930's the US Communist party supported unionisation, provided legal support (e.g. the Scotsboro boys), and encouraged boycotts of the businesses of racist employers- however "Red Scare" that was to some in later decades (the seeds of which were already present) meant that the party's influence as a whole could not be significant. The trade unions themselves often represented groups of workers that AA's would fall into (i.e. "bluecollar" workers), although not necessarily African Americans in those groups: black membership was low until the 1930's, when large numbers became
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They were not stealing from the offices, but instead planting electronic bugging devices. One burglar turned out to be a former member of the CIA (the government's secret service). At this stage no one made any direct connection to CREEP or Nixon. Two reporters felt that the "true" story had not been uncovered, and so trailed their own inquiries. Two reporters from the "Washington Post", Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward, uncovered some facts which proved very embarrassing to the White House. All five burglars were employed by CREEP and the CREEP fund was controlled at the White House.
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Who was the most influential figure in the Civil Rights Movement in the USA in the 1950s and 1960s? What impact did he/she have?3 star(s)
Graduating from Crozer Theological Seminary as class president in 1951, he then did postgraduate work at Boston University. King's studies at Crozer and Boston led him to explore the works of the Indian nationalist Mohandas K. Gandhi, whose ideas became the core of his own philosophy of non-violent protest. That same year the Supreme Court of the United States outlawed all segregated public education, and in the wake of that decision, the segregated South was soon challenged in every area of public adaptation.
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Rosa Parks. Good morning/afternoon students my name is Rosa Parks and I am here to speak to you about the importance of becoming involved in the civil rights movement
The Klu Klux Klan has murdered many of our loved ones and family. We will take a stand together. We have to let the whites know that we will not let them make us feel inferior and segregated. We will no longer tolerate being treated as some second class citizen. Sometimes we have to break the law to stop the segregation in America. The civil rights movement is a time of segregation and racism in America. We are separated from the whites; treated unfairly and looked at as inferior. We have separate schools, transport and public facilities which are poorly funded and rarely equal to those for whites.
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6. Truman's goal was to "destroy Japan's power to make war." Truman did accomplish this with the atomic bombs he dropped, because Japan soon surrendered after massive losses crippled their power to fight on. 7. Truman advocates the power of using atomic energy to maintain world peace, but does not divulge how. He simply states, "it is not intended to divulge the technical processes of production." He only says he will make recommendations to Congress about how to maintain peace and will continue to form committees and do research. 8. Truman claims that Japan was given an opportunity to surrender at Potsdam, and that diplomatic attempt was the olive branch that they refused, giving America a right to attack.
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He also aimed to get power for black people. "Malcolm X became the voice of many angry black people who felt non-violent protest had failed" (1). This shows how necessary Malcolm X was because people felt that the non-violent approach had failed and these people needed someone to lead them with their new approach. Malcolm X was also a very powerful speaker and a courageous advocate. "Malcolm was a powerful speaker. Wherever he went, African Americans gathered around him" (2).
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at cinemas and restaurants o Montgomery Bus Boycott: o Greensboro sit-in: 4 black Americans demanded to sit at a whites-only lunch counter and remained seating at that counter until the shop closed. o Freedom riders o Voter Education Project * Forming of Organisations o National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People (NAACP) o NACCP: their lawyers helped in the Brown vs. Topeka case, in the favour of Brown o Congress of Racial Equality * The war o For example: helped broaden opportunities for black American women o Raised awareness
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Study Source A, The Long Shadow of little Rock . What can you learn from Source A about what happened at Little Rock in September 1957??
Nobody wanting to defend her supports this and displays inequality. Study Sources A, B and C. Does the evidence of Source B and C support Elizabeth Eckford's account of events at Little Rock (Source A)? Source B is an article from "New York Times" September 1957. It shows the vicious reaction of the whites to the blacks when they arrive at Little Rock. Source C is a photograph of Elizabeth Eckford taken on the first day at Little Rock high.
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He was also Supreme commander of the allied powers During the second world war. During this time he was responsible for planing and supervising the Very sucessful invasion of Germany and France. This was the beginning of the end of WWI.During his presidency he maintaned pressure ob the Soviet Union during the Cold War, oversaw the cease-fire of the Korean War, Launched the Space Race, made Nuclear Wepons a higher defense priority, enlarged the Social Security program, and began the Interstate Highway System (Dwight D. Eisenhower Wikipedia). Eisenhower was born at 208 East Day Street in Denison, Texas, on October 14, 1890, he was the first president born in Texas.
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McFarlane initially played several more minor roles under Reagan's administration and started implementing his political ideas. He started his political career under Reagan as Counselor to the Department of State, which assisted then-Secretary of State Alexander Haig in foreign affairs. As Reagan's foreign policy had been following Carter's for the first year, people such as McFarlane and Haig wished to change that status quo. However, McFarlane initially could not obtain a comprehensive foreign policy toward Soviet-friendly Nicaragua in this time period because Haig was not interested in doing more, and he claims that if they had done things differently, they would have avoided problems in the future.
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Segregation was further enforced by the 1896 Plessey vs Ferguson ruling, in which the Supreme Court stated segregation in schools was constitutional provided the education was 'separate but equal'. This was never achieved as southern whites believed in keeping the blacks ignorant so that they would know no better and not rebel to demand more rights, thus maintaining white supremacy. Black schools remained badly resourced and the educational standards were poor. At the same time the Ku Klux Klan was active in intimidating black people who were often lynched surrounded by a white audience.
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The government helped the unions by negotiating between them and the large companies. The Committee for Industry Organisation (CIO) was set up by some labour unions combining forces and they were able to bargain with the large corporations. The New Deal also helped the unemployed and the economy by making millions of jobs. When the New Deal started the percentage of labour force unemployed was 24.9% and by the end of the New Deal and Second New Deal it was down to 14.3% which is a 10.6% decrease. This in turn helped to steady the American banking system and reduced the number of failing businesses.
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The black people had to fight for freedom. The aftermath of the civil war lead to segregation. One of the main problems that faced desegregation in the southern states was that white's stilled carried a hatred for the blacks. The northern states won the war and the southern states felt betrayed by the northern states and as though the Black people had turned their own against them. The whites then decided to oppress the black people. Soon Desegregation began to be enforced over the Southern states.
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How far is it accurate to say that the black power movement of the 1960s achieved nothing for African Americans?
This was because De Facto segregation had to be defeated from below and so using politics or the legal system had little effect. Perhaps this highlighted the error of Kings ways, simply because racism was informal in the north. King struggled to gain support using non-violent civil disobedience mainly because he was unable to sympathise with northerners. This shows the importance of the Black power movement in that it raised awareness and was their only option.
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It is also published a fair time after the events so it's likely to be right. However, I do know that this was a crucial time for black education, because the Supreme Court ruled in favour of desegregation in the Brown versus The Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, 1954. And in the Brown Two ruling, ordered that desegregation should take place with 'deliberate speed'. The figures in the table show that it was going to take a long time to desegregate schools in the Deep South. The numbers in the two tables are estimates so they aren't precise.
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This suggests that he was not protecting her, allowing anything to happen to her. However, this statement is not supported by source 'B' because it says in the source" They've gone in,", this suggests that although the guard was not protecting her he did not threaten her with violence to prohibit her from going into the school. In source 'A' Elizabeth Eckford also states that the crowd came closer and closer.
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As it is Malcolm X's autobiography, it could be to entertain so that he will earn many monies. It could be to persuade as he may be targeting other Black Americans to try to change their opinions on M.L.K. It could also be to inform the Black American community of what Martin Luther King is actually trying to do and what will happen if they keep following his methods. The content of this source is partly useful as he does talk about segregation from whites and from this point, we can infer that he does not want to forgive white people for what they and their forefathers have done.
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His society was where "freedom from the wants of the body can help fulfil the needs of spirit". He believed poverty is the greatest evil upon society so he attempted to end it. He wanted to end racial discrimination in employment and education. In 1964, he described his dream of "The Great Society" to students at the University of Michigan.
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A major incident which gained the civil rights movement widespread support was the Montgomery Bus Boycott in 1955. In December of that year, Rosa Parks was coming home from work. She sat down on a bus and when a white man ordered her to give him her seat, she refused. This was against the law and subsequently, Parks was arrested. Parks was an active member of the National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People (NAACP) and this event was planned. This sparked the beginning of year long boycott of the buses in Montgomery by Black Americans. Since Blacks made up 60 - 70% of all bus riders in Montgomery, the bus company was faced with a decision - desegregate its buses or go out of business.
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