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GCSE: USA 1941-80

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  1. A Woman's Journey

    Women's groups discovered discrimination in the workplace, where women received less pay and fewer promotions than men did. They also uncovered barriers to women seeking political office and to female students striving for high academic achievement. So, the women of America banned together to achieve their political and economic rights. Many people knew them as feminists. They marched and petitioned for their own beliefs, as well as women in general. Protests became an every day word, and women's rights became inevitable. They stood to be heard and respected. In the end, they achieved it with grace. The United States passed several laws during the 1960's and 1970's, aimed at providing equal rights for women.

    • Word count: 1642
  2. The Warren Commission

    This bag had been made for a particular purpose since it was the right size to store a rifle in a disassembled form. On this bag appeared the print of the left index finger and right palm of Lee Harvey Oswald. Resting partially on the windowsill were two small cartons labelled 'Rolling Readers'. These two cartons appeared to be arranged as a convenient gun rest. The 'Rolling Readers' cartons contained a palm print and a fingerprint, which were identified as being prints of Oswald's.

    • Word count: 1595
  3. Civil disobedience: peaceful or passive protest against a governmental body in rebuttal of some immoral policy

    In ancient times those who chose to undertake the perilous act of civil disobedience-the early Christians who defied the Roman Empire, Socrates, Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego-did not do so lightly, for in these times such acts were generally met with an immediate and often painful death (King, 2000). In effect, it took a strong conscience to resort to such actions. This same ideal held true in more recent times, as demonstrated by Denmark in their defiance of Nazi ideals and Martin Luther King Jr.

    • Word count: 1182
  4. Why did some black activists reject the approach of Martin Luther King to Civil Rights

    A federal court ordered Montgomery's buses desegregated in November 1956, and the boycott ended in triumph. King lead several sit-ins, this kind of movement not only was a success and desegregated several facilities, but also demonstrated clearly to blacks and whites alike that young blacks were determined to reject segregation openly. But the whites violently attacked the black people. King had told his followers to take the beating and not fight back; his philosophy was that the black protest would wear the whites down by their capacity to suffer, and 'Non-violence weakens the oppressor's morale and exposes his defences.

    • Word count: 1259
  5. Why Did The Segregation Of Schools Become A Problem InThe USA In The 1950s

    The Rail Road Company". Segregation was now officially illegal. This sparked up new opportunities for civil rights throughout the south. Black Americans throughout the U.S. now realised that something could really be done. Segregation in the U.S. wasn't only targeted at black people, it was also aimed at Jews, Russians, Asians, Italians and all other races that weren't White Anglo Saxon Protestants (WASP's), but of all the races black people were classed as the worst. "Topeka vs. Brown" was the first victory for black civil rights campaigners.

    • Word count: 1602
  6. Women, rights and society

    Mary Wollstonecraft has been called the "first feminist" or "mother of feminism". Her book is about women's rights, especially women's education. Mary Wollstonecraft agreed to the idea that that women's sphere is family, but she didn't isolate family life from public life as many others did at that time. For Mary Wollstonecraft, the public life and domestic life wasn't separate, but connected. The family was important for her because it formed a foundation for the social and public life. The public life intensified and served both individuals and the family. In her option, like men had duties in the family too, the women had duties to the state.

    • Word count: 1657
  7. Describe The Treatment of Black Africans in South Africa in the 1930's and 1940's

    The reserves weren't even healthy for humans to live, and they had animal conditions. The reserves amplified from 7% to 13.5%. The Afrikaner then stopped the blacks from voting, because they knew that if they had to vote they would be more likely to vote for a fellow black person to lead them. This meant that the Afrikaner wouldn't exist or even have any power over them. They basically choose them that they had no voice or say about anything, that all they had to do is follow and listen to them.

    • Word count: 1458
  8. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. : 'I Have a Dream'

    King made in his speech was that of recalling for all the promise inherent in Abraham Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation. He refers to the hundred years span as "five score," recalling even the manner in which Lincoln himself had referred to the passage of time in his Gettysburg address. Of the Proclamation, King said, "This momentous decree came as a great beacon of light of hope to millions of Negro slaves, who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice. It came as a joyous daybreak to end the long night of their captivity". Dr. King's allusion to Abraham Lincoln, one of the few political figures of American history respected by black and white alike, sets a tone of veracity.

    • Word count: 1208
  9. Media Studies Coursework: Soap Operas

    Eastenders is shown several times a week with no end date. Eastenders is a soap opera mentanarritive because it has many storylines all going together and it follows a number of key conventions. Mentanarritive soap operas usually focus on family conflicts and romance. They also have a cliff hangar at the end to make sure the audience watches on to the next episode. This is to create excitement and eagerness. It is also a way to make sure they have as many people watching the show as possible. Characters change and develop over time in a soap opera.

    • Word count: 1083
  10. The Civil Rights movement is still identified by people across the world with Dr Martin Luther King. His day of birth is remarked with a national holiday

    They had seen various other leaders attempt violent direct action which resulted in even more turmoil for the blacks. This non-violent strategy gave the whole movement a spiritual, religious feel which added to the feeling of unity amongst his followers. Before MLK, a lot of progress was made in achieving political and civil rights. The Civil War amendments of 1865-70 gave the blacks some of these rights, but over three quarters of a century later, the American public still failed to see them as "equals".

    • Word count: 1924
  11. Film analysis- Anna And The King

    Anna had preconceived notions about the East; the king also had similar notions about the West. At first, Anna found that she was not suited for the culture of Siam and had conflicts with the king. As time gradually passed, Anna and the King mutual respect grew and they learnt from each others' cultures. At last, Anna saved Siam from political danger and their respect gradually turned into love. Anna chose to leave Siam. At the last scene, she danced with the King in Siam's palace. The above is the explicit story of the film and audiences would notice the theme of love with cultural differences after watching it.

    • Word count: 1943
  12. Malcolm X essay project

    One of Malcolm X's most famous quotes was when he said, "violence in self-defence I don't call it violence when it's self-defence, I call it intelligence". He has repeated this quote in a number of his speeches. Malcolm X was also famous for the way he was brought up from when he started out as a little boy who wanted to be a lawyer but was then discouraged by his teacher, and then went on to be a burglar and got arrested for his crimes.

    • Word count: 1956
  13. Martin Luther King's speech in "Jobs and Freedom" presented his hopes for an end to racial discrimination in the USA. How did people respond to his ideas?

    He said how they were segregated from the white community and mistreated because of their skin color "-the life of the Negro is still sadly crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination."1He spoke of how long the 'Negro's' have fought for justice and that they will keep fighting until they were 'satisfied'. He also mentioned the voting policies in USA, which only allowed 2% of the black people to vote whereas 42% of the population was black2.

    • Word count: 1211
  14. With the use of appropriate examples suggest the qualities required to be a good leader of society.

    surrounding Nazi-dominated countries, contributed to the outbreak of the Second World War and was directly responsible for the deaths of more than 30 million people all in all. Despite the appalling crimes against humanity he committed during his years of leadership, the fact that he was able to gain the attention, trust and respect from the people in his nation cannot be avoided. However, some of the methods he used were manipulative, deceitful and dishonest, unknown to the German people, and included the mass murder of many SA members, Hitler's personal army, during 'the Night of the Long Knives' on

    • Word count: 1912
  15. To what extent did black Civil Rights improve in the years between 1863-1877?

    The 1868 fourteenth amendment, giving "all persons born or naturalized" in the Union national citizenship, meant blacks should be protected equally by law and stand on a jury; the 15th amendment, giving them the vote, naturally followed in 1870. However, such measures were only held up by the Reconstruction Governments of the time, and it was clear that the states' white citizens mostly disagreed with the schemes, responding to them with a barrage of cruelty and violence. However, for the first time blacks were able to participate actively in the realms of politics, and were keen to make an impact.

    • Word count: 1513
  16. "The movement made Martin rather than Martin making the movement." How far was King's role in the Civil Rights Movement essential to its success?

    The role of King must be assessed not only in light of his contemporaries within the Civil Rights struggle, but also those who came before and after, taking into account his achievements in light of theirs. Modern movements toward Civil Rights are agreed to have begun with the Montgomery bus boycott of 1955-6. Rosa Parks' arrest proliferated a year-long boycott to desegregate Montgomery buses, for which King has gained much credit - for mobilising the black community and organising the movement.

    • Word count: 1102
  17. Why did an organised campaign against segregation and discrimination emerge in the Southern states of America during the 1950s?

    rose from 50,000 members in 1930 to 450,000 by 1945, and the Fair Employment Practice Commission (FEPC) was founded to fight for equal pay in defence industries, as a result of the war. Although the Second World War did not significantly change attitudes and by no means were all Americans ready for equality, but during the war black Americans had been able to experience other countries with less or no segregation and wanted to fight for change in America. The tactics of the NAACP during the 1950s in several significant court cases were both clever and successful.

    • Word count: 1153
  18. Were contempories correct in regarding president Kennedy as the saviour of the western world?

    This idea would guide his presidency as the Cuban missile crisis worsened. Kennedy's image as a hero and saviour was rapidly increased as the crisis worsened. The American press played a major part in this and used propaganda to portray the "saviour" image, this propaganda soon spread to other countries. "President Kennedy........saved the world" This quotation from Kennedy's aid Theodore Sorensen telling the world that Kennedy had saved the world, this was included in a speach made shortly after Kennedy's assassination.

    • Word count: 1415
  19. "We hold these truths to be self evident, that all men are created equal

    This is not equal rights as they were treated as if they were nothing. White people were happy of what they were doing as they had an advantage over them and they felt as they were in control. Josiah Henson was a slave who escaped to freedom in Canada. He told of the inhumanities of the slave auction. When Josiah was a boy, he and his family lived on the Mc Pherson Estate, later it went into liquidation and he and his family were sold off.

    • Word count: 1628
  20. G.C.S.E History Coursework: Civil Rights 2

    This was due to new black activist groups called "Black Nationalists". These groups developed in the North from the ghettos and other working class black groups. It was led by Malcolm X and also Elijah Mohammad which, unlike Martin Luther King, believed that the Blacks had waited too long to gain acceptance from the white "oppressors". The main aims for this group were to gain rights from white without "pleading and begging" and if this meant fighting back against white violence then they would fight back and "be proud to be black".

    • Word count: 1002
  21. Critical Analysis - Martin Luther King, Jr.

    He went on to graduate, with honours, from Crozer Theological Seminary in 1951 and enrolled in Boston University where he achieved a doctoral degree in systematic theology, in 1955. Throughout his education, King was exposed to influences that associated Christian theology to the struggles of oppressed people. At Boston University, he studied the teachings on non-violent protests, of Indian leader Mohandas Gandhi. King also read and heard many statements from people protested against American racism. Benjamin E. Mays, the president of Morehouse and a leader in the national community of racially liberal clergymen, was particularly important in modelling King's theological development.

    • Word count: 1693
  22. Why did an organised campaign against segregation and discrimination emerge in the southern states during the 1950s?

    This gave rise to blacks having economic power, due to higher disposable incomes. The first attempt at trying to abolish segregation in the southern states was taken by trying to obtain legal power through court cases. The first conflict erupted in the early 1950s over the issue of desegregating schools. In 1954 the Brown case was the first step in the campaign against segregation and it began with an attack on the education system. Oliver Brown decided to challenge segregated schools in Topeka, Kansas.

    • Word count: 1536
  23. Were Contemporaries correct in regarding President Kennedy as the saviour of the Western World After The Cuban Missile Crisis?

    At Kennedy's funeral, a member of Excom remarked on Kennedy's 'Skill and firmness that saved the world'. Sorenson stressed that 'If anyone else had been president, it is likely the world would have been blown up'. The American media held this view of Kennedy being the savior of the Western world because they had confidence in Kennedy. It was the height of the cold war so the media presented Kennedy as strong and resolute in an attempt to boost morale among the American nation and to defuse tension giving the people a feeling that they were safe and secure.

    • Word count: 1678
  24. Why did the desegregation of schools become a major problem in the USA in the 1950's?

    It didn't help that there was media frenzy, with the spread of television. Most blacks and some neutral, sympathetic whites were delighted with the decision. However, many whites in America were deeply angered. The Supreme Court decision was deeply resented by most of the Southern States and this led to a lot of tension between the federal government and the individual states. Even though schools were desegregated there was still racial tension. When public school segregation ended President Eisenhower reflected widespread opinion when he said, "you cannot change peoples hearts merely by law."

    • Word count: 1638
  25. Did life improve for black people after the abolition of slavery?

    Then one day someone would have come and captured them while they were at home minding the house, next they would have been tied up and taken onto a slave ship. The slave ship would have been quite big but because of the huge amount of slaves taken on it, it was a very cramped living condition for the slaves. Whilst they were on the ship they were given certain amounts of food and drink. The living conditions on the ship were very wrong and harsh and many slaves died even before they got to America.

    • Word count: 1075

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