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GCSE: USA 1941-80
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"...violence against women constitutes a violation of the rights and fundamental freedoms of women..."
While women have gained some ground in terms of economic rights, their civil and political rights are systematically violated. Equal treatment for women and men is a basic principle of international human rights standards. Yet in Saudi Arabia discriminatory practices against women are not only common, they are also in some cases required by law. Strict segregation of the sexes, an integral part of Saudi Arabian society, has adverse and unequal effects on women, who are denied equal educational opportunities and may work only in certain careers.
- Word count: 1943
Walter Lee is thirty-five and wants to provide for his family but his income won't allow it. However, he has become so mad at the treatment of the black race and feels the only way to further his race is to become a businessman and buy materialistic items so he can measure up against the white folks. 'What Hansberry is trying to illustrate is how Western civilization has conditioned society to have materialistic aspirations and how these ideals corrupt the black man's identity and his family.'
- Word count: 1077
What defines a 'cultural icon'? Choose any cultural icon and write an essay on its (or 'his' or 'her') place and significance in culture at large.
Martin Luther King Jr, was born on January 15th 1929 and was the son of an Atlanta pastor. The community in which he lived in was like many he knew. He said, "No-one in our community had attained any great wealth."1 The neighbourhood he lived in were religious just as King's family were. As a child King first experienced racism towards him when he made friends with a white boy, and was told that they could not go to the same school as each other because King was black.
- Word count: 1547
For a long period of time the black slaves were controlled by several brutal means. However, forced to work for long hours, they managed to establish their own churches, develop their own music. And they also expressed their desire for freedom in some way such as "run-away", but such resistance was always brutally broken down. For the black Africans, the first triumph in the search for freedom and equality happened in 1865. It was in that year that the 13th Amendment to the Constitution made the abolition of the slave system official. Prior to this event, the conflict over slavery between the Southern and Northern states eventually drove the nation to the Civil War in 1861.
- Word count: 1279
Describe the Role of Martin Luther King in Civil Rights Activity in the USA during the years up until 1968
He involved himself in the Montgomery Bus Boycott (1953), where he became known as the leader of the boycott. However the Boycott had been organised at first by the NAACP, and some people felt King took the whole of the credit. His role however was important as was the Boycott which caused the Supreme Court to declare segregation on buses unconstitutional in 1956. However, it also brought King to the forefront of the movement, and in 1957 he helped establish The Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), and became the president of the group.
- Word count: 1145
Frasier immediately adds, "Or should I say, "Happy New millennium (laughs)" this is not only a repair, but a topic that has purposely been opened up for Roz to relate to almost straight away. Roz clearly knows what Frasier is trying to imply by his laughter and her retort in an expressive utterance, "Oh god (0.1) I'm so sick of talking about it" conveys this even more. The pause is an example of a prosodic feature and displays the relaxed friendship she and Frasier share as well as conveying her unwillingness to talk about the incident that happened.
- Word count: 1533
Describe the role of Martin Luther King in Civil Rights activity in the USA during the years up to 1968.
of which King was President, filed a lawsuit in federal court seeking an injunction against Montgomery's segregated seating practices. The federal court ruled in favour of the MIA, ordering the cities buses to be desegregated, but the city government appealed the ruling to the US Supreme Court. By the time the Supreme Court upheld the lower court decision in Nov 1956, King was a national figure. The bus boycott made King a symbol of black protest around the country and in the following years he spoke alongside other national black leaders and even met with President Eisenhower. All the while King looked to capitalise on the success of the boycott.
- Word count: 1277
Shortly after the Civil War ended, an assortment of plans to reconstruct the devastated South emerged. Each of these plans was an attempt to rebuild the South with Northern morals and views on topics such as religion, the economy, and social beliefs. This period of time, appropriately called Reconstruction, was an outrage to loyal white Southerners. This group of people felt that the North needed not to help the South try and piece together their shattered remains of society. Contrary to their deepest hopes, the South would not be left alone by the persistent effort from the North to help the struggling South.
- Word count: 1433
He Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizens, 1789 - Analyse the key clauses of the Declaration as outlined in Rees & Townson
Lafayette made several drafts which he subsequently sent to Thomas Jefferson, an American envoy to France. Jefferson added some considerations of his own, based from American experience. In particular, Jefferson made a provision to have an amending constitutional convention on periodic intervals. The first political paper written by Paine caught the attention of Benjamin Franklin, another American envoy. In 1774 whilst in London, Franklin offered Paine a letter of recommendation allowing Paine to immigrate to America. After arriving in Philadelphia later that year, Paine assisted in the writing of the Declaration of Independence before leaving for France in 1791.
- Word count: 1091
The war in fact would have benefited African Americans because the segregation issues made America look like an uncivilized country, so it would mean them destroying segregation to continue a good and prosperous reputation. However, the USA being capitalists and the USSR being communists would have been a disadvantage. The reason for this is because the USSR despised the political and economic system and people would have accused African Americans of being communists because they wanted equality. The USSR would also have used propaganda to show the world how America has contradicted herself by using the name "Land of the Free" when such issues as segregation existed in the country.
- Word count: 1007
Kennedy was a successful president; he secured peace over Cuba and made great progress on Civil Rights issues. Do you agree with this interpretation?
Kennedy makes a perfect picture frame image especially with his wife and children. He is the perfect family man who is young, glamorous and has everything is going for him. Through-out his life he won the hearts of many by making the right decisions and he gained the trust worthy vote. Kennedy was a war hero - he had been awarded a medal for bravery from saving people's lives rescuing them, after their boat was sunk by the Japanese in Wold War ll. After his death in 1982 people in the US still remembered him as a great leader.
- Word count: 1761
In 1957 Elizabeth Eckford tried to attend Central High School, a white only school in Little Rock. As she arrived she was met with white protesters refusing to let her join the white school. The Southern State Government tried to force intrigration but did so slowly. Slowly more back children joined the school. There were still many protesters very unhappy with the integration, so the Federal Government sent in the army for one year to protect the children. This shows us the determination of the government to achieve equal rights for black people as they are willing to use their army to protect black children from the violence of white protesters.
- Word count: 1092
This gives the impression that the only time black people can actually be successful is in dreams. The narrative follows Todorov's Narrative Theory and focuses around Jamal (Martin Lawrence) who is employed in a menial job at a medieval theme park. This is important as it shows black people to be employed in jobs which take a low brain capacity. Through a series of comedic events, Jamal falls into the moat while reaching for a gold amulet. He is then transported by the amulet, back into medieval times.
- Word count: 1013
Martin found out that if the blacks had the same jobs as the whites, the whites got paid more. This made Martin angry. He found it hard working for a white boss as he would never call Martin by his name, just "Nigger"! During his next summer holiday from school, Martin worked in the tobacco fields in Connecticut. He did a lot of praying and felt that he had the strength to help other people. When he was seventeen he realised he wanted to be a church Minister.
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This is a very weak argument for the blacks seeing improvements in life. However there are a number of arguments against blacks getting an improved life during these years which are segregation was most definitely enforced in terms of military parades, eating areas, when being transported and even the blood which medics carried were all separated. The first true sign of integrated fighting was in 1945 at the 'Battle of Bulge'; however it was also the only time during these troubled years. The navy however showed more prosperous times ahead for the black people because it was officially the first section of the armed forces to integrate.
- Word count: 1689
How far did the release of Nelson Mandela in 1990 influence the transition to majority rule in 1994?
At Sharpeville, after peaceful protests from the ANC and PAC, police shot 69 demonstrators and 180 were wounded. Many were shot in the back. There was a shocked international reaction which demanded apartheid should end. A major part of the opposition was the Black Consciousness movement led by Steve Biko. His theory was that "as a result of living for generations in a white-dominated society, black people had lost confidence in themselves. They came to assume that the whites were superior so they accepted too easily, if unhappily, the bad ways in which they were treated".
- Word count: 1138
Although segregation became illegal in 1954, the white people in the Southern states were still much against the newly passed law. Many aspects of society needed to be changed, new and more effective laws needed to be made and the blacks starting active protesting was essential. When these things started to improve and change so did the Civil Rights Movement lead by Martin Luther King. More media interest in the protests and events helped for the whole country to see what the situation was like which put more pressure on the government to make a fair and equal decision.
- Word count: 1204
Civil Rights-Do you agree that Martin Luther King was the most important factor in helping Blacks gain mare civil rights in the 1960s? Explain your answer.
Martin Luther King was famous for leading the Montgomery Bus Boycott, which lead to the 1957 Supreme Court ruling that buses could no longer be segregated. In 1955 when Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat on the bus, the Montgomery Bus Boycott, actually began its 380-day campaign for freedom not with a demand for integrating the buses, but only with the request that bus drivers practice greater courtesy and that the line between white seats and black seats be flexible, depending on how many passengers of each race were on the bus.
- Word count: 1882
Garvey even started his own shipping company called the "Black Star Line" in order to provide steamship transport to Africa. Although Garvey's attempts to create job opportunities for blacks failed, to masses he was considered a hero, a champion and a "Black Moses" and many uneducated blacks were able to relate to Garvey as his approaches and ideas were easy to understand. By 1920, Garvey claimed there were over 2 million members of UNIA. But numbers decreased when he was arrested for fraud in 1925.
- Word count: 1209
Therefore, it is our right to put them to the contribution of humanity's evolvement, which they have been doing very successfully. He states that, most of the time, animals are the only possible option to go forth with experimentation. In the following lines, my focus will be on both authors' use of argumentum ad hominen, their playing on feelings, their level of consideration for the opposing side's views and opinions, and their perception of man's place in nature. First of all, we notice that both authors, as an argumentative technique, try to appeal to our sensitivity, even though they use it both to different degrees.
- Word count: 1820
At the 1960 Democratic national convention, Kennedy won the party's presidential nomination on the first ballot. The delegates nominated Senator Lyndon B. Johnson of Texas for vice president. The Republicans chose Vice President Richard M. Nixon to oppose Kennedy for the presidency. The 1960 campaign was a hard-fought race. Both candidates were young, vigorous campaigners. At first, most experts believed Nixon would win. Nixon had the advantage of being vice president under Dwight D. Eisenhower, an unusually popular president. But Kennedy's good looks, wealth, and attractive wife had made him a popular subject in newspapers and magazines.
- Word count: 1421
Compare Holden Caulfield from The Catcher in the Rye, Ray Kinsella from Shoeless Joe, and Martin Luther King, Jr., a non-violent civil rights activist.
In Shoeless Joe, Ray's wife, Annie, says to him, "... If it makes you happy you should do it." In this quote, Annie is referring to Ray's decision to build the baseball field. That is why Ray did it. It made him happy. He took this risk in pursuit of his dream. He did not care how expensive it would be or how much harder it would be to stay on the farm. His refusal to sell his farm showed that he had no cares about his financial well being. Those are worries shared by people who measure success with material wealth.
- Word count: 1024
The author of source I believes that television played a crucial part in ending segregation in the USA. Use the sources, and your own knowledge, to help you explain whether you agree with this view.
Although there were these sorts of images in newspapers, the television had more affect, with the pictures being right in front of you and viewers could see that it as real. For the first time it was recognised properly that racial discrimination was a national problem that needed to be resolved, and as it says in Source H, an extract from a school text book, 'many whites who were previously indifferent to the campaign were now sickened by this brutality' The television brought the campaigns to life for white Americans and they could now see the crisis in full, as
- Word count: 1990
The most recent of the three, the Post-Revisionist School, argued that the Radical Republicans were not all that radical. Their policies were too conservative and weak to make any drastic or lasting changes. Through studying these three schools, it can be seen that, regarding any positive short-term effects, Reconstruction can only be see as a failure; however, during Reconstruction, the roots of a black community were planted that would later flourish into the Civil Rights movements of the 1960's and the modern black community. The following paragraphs will discuss it ultimate failure but long-term effects through the arguments of James Burns of the Post-Revisionist school and Eric Foner of the Revisionist school.
- Word count: 1055
"The Civil rights Movement achieved a great deal in the 1950s and 1960s." Do sources A to F prove that this interpretation is correct?
But I do believe that source A suggests that the civil rights movement did achieve something with black children attending desegregated schools. We need to see figures from the 1970's and 80's in order to know whether desegregation had worked and was a success. Source B shows a black schoolgirl being taunted and shouted at as she tried to enter Little Rock high school in Arkansas. This suggests that even though black children can attend desegregated schools the white people do not like it. This is not an achievement for the civil rights movement because not everyone agrees with it.
- Word count: 1259