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GCSE: Vietnam 1954-1975
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Other brutalities transpired, women were gang raped and tortured, other civilians maimed with "C company" etched into their chests, others struck with rifle butts and bayonets and beaten to death. The total death toll was 504 and one platoon led by Lieutenant William Calley was responsible for over half the alleged deaths. One soldier who was at My Lai, Varnado Simpson, stated in December 1969: "Everyone who went into the village had in mind to kill. We had lost a lot of buddies and it was a VC stronghold.
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Vietnam war, representation work. In this essay I will evaluate the content, accuracy and objectivity of the representations, before I establish which is most reliable regarding the reaction of the American public to presence of US forces in Vietnam.
I personally think that Representation 2 is the best source for withdrawing information on the way in which people in the USA reacted in Vietnam. This source is built on solid facts and statistics and it was written in 1987 when the whole event and its aftermath could be analysed and taken into account. It is also unbiased and brings across a different range of perspectives with regards to the Vietnam - This differs to the other representations whose portrayals are widely negative and only give one perspective on the war.
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Due to the fear of communism, USA started to financially support Viet Minh and they gave 520 million dollars support to French government in 1949 every year. In 1954 French were defeated at Dien Bien Phu. In 1956 Vietnam was supposed to have elections to reunite the country; however in 1954 USA applied the rule to prevent the elections from taking place, because they knew that communists would win. Because of the Geneva agreement Vietnam was divided into Communist North Vietnam, lead by Ho Chi Minh (with support from China)
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At first (1956) there were 700 American advisers. In 1959 President John F. Kennedy increased the number to 16,000. In 1964 Lyndon Johnson replaced Kennedy. However, the North Vietnamese increased the strength of their forces to 35-40 battalions, 35,000 guerrillas and 80,000 irregulars. In Aug 1964 an American destroyer in the Gulf of Tonkin was attacked. Although not harmed, the US. Congress passed virtually unanimously the Tonkin Gulf Resolution, allowing Johnson any military intervention. The US thought they could win the war at any time, but Johnson did not want to provoke Soviet entry into it.
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Also the poster is from one time during the war, the representation doesn't show different posters from different times, this significantly limits its coverage as people's reaction to the war changed as the war progressed. This representation is partly accurate, mainly due to it sharing the same concern and expressing the same views as many other anti-war posters, it is also similarly presented to them. The fact that this poster is similar to other anti-war posters corroborates the poster's accuracy.
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The US rapidly responded and fought them with ease. The Vietnam war was ordered by President Eisenhower, who later was replaced by Kennedy (assassinated in 1963), who was replaced by President Johnson. President Johnson vowed to get the "military" advisors out of the Vietnam incident. Rather, he sent in huge numbers of combat troops! The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution had given Johnson the opportunity to use the massive bombing tactic on North Vietnam, and Viet Cong tunnels. (Ho Chi Minh Trial). This operation was codenames Operation Rolling Thunder. Between March 2, 1965 and November 1, 1968, North Vietnam was continuously bombing by the US air force, the reasons fordoing
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They said they would not fight and kill other people of colour in the world who, like black people, are being victimized by the white racist government of America. Their campaign was huge throughout the black community in America- especially with the racial issues at that time. As the war went, there were more protests. When college students found out that they could be subscribed to the army due to the introduction of the lottery, they suddenly became a lot more anti-war.
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ever lost. II. Evidence The first reason that going to Vietnam was a good idea was that we needed to stop the spread of communism (Brownell 12). It was a growing threat, and needed to be stopped as quickly as possible (Brownell 87). We entered the war, and for the support of France and to stop communism in its steps (Welch 2). With little success in both areas at first, in the long run we were successful in our main goals (Welch 7).
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This statement suggests that television was an important reason why the United States lost the war in Vietnam. Is there sufficient evidence in sources D to L to support this interpretation? Use the sources and knowledge from your studies to explain your a
Source D is a propaganda poster showing the Guerrilla warfare. It shows the Americans looking for the Vietnamese in the dense rainforest. The fighting conditions weren't conditions the American soldiers were used to. The rainforests were hot and humid and the extreme climate difference compared to the USA was a huge struggle for soldiers to adjust to. Source D also shows the Vietcong hiding in the rainforest as the American soldiers try to search for them. The Vietcong were very skilled at hiding and blending into their surroundings.
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Another tactic the Americans tried to use was to try and re-educate the South Vietnamese people. The main purpose of this re-education was to stop the South Vietnamese from helping the Vietcong forces in such ways as a hiding place or giving them food supplies. Although this method was effective, it did not manage to for fill its main idea. So for a quick to their problems, they used the Strategic Hamlets Policy, which forced the South Vietnamese to be moved, and South Vietnamese leader Diem also demanded that they had to pay for their movement.
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In fact the Gallup poll showed that the public viewed Vietnam as the most important problem facing the country from 1965 to 1968. The war had cost her one billion dollars a day at its peak and she had dropped 7 million tons of bombs - more than the entire total of all participants in World War Two. The cost of the war in 1968 alone was $88 billion while the combined spending on education, health and housing in that year was $24 billion.
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The USA should have been successful in Vietnam because of its technological and military supremacy. However the USA failed to use this supremacy efficiently to defeat a smaller less advanced enemy? Do you agree or disagree with this interpretation?
This source is one sided towards the Americans because it has no information about the amount of Dead US or Vietcong troops, nor does it show the amount of Vietcong in comparison to amount of US, that could show to us that the US was losing to a smaller, less advanced army, but because it doesn't show them in the chart, thus making it useless in the case of 'Is America Superior?'. Another point to prove that this source is not that useful is that it doesn't show the quality of the Vietcong nor their US counterparts, whereas the US
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One of the sources that support the question is source E. This source is a picture that shows children running down a Vietnamese road. Two particular children in this image create a huge impact which would go on to trigger and stir-up anti war movements in America. In the background of the picture there are American soldiers filming these two particular children, a boy and a girl, and the soldiers are laughing and not helping this small boy who is running with terror on his face and a small girl who is sprinting with no clothes on.
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John Keegan, a modern military historian suggests that Haig was an efficient and highly skilled soldier who did much to lead Britain to victory in the First World War. Is their sufficient evidence in sources A to H to support this interpretation? Us
Also, Haig mentions about the Germans being practically beaten men and were ready to surrender also expecting defeat and once again this comment is biased because there are no facts supporting this statement also Germany battled strongly until the end of the First World War 1918 Source B is a poster of Haig pointing to himself saying 'your country needs me' this is very sarcastic then underneath it says 'like a hole in the head which is what most of you are going to get' this is very critical of Haig's leadership as it is saying we are all going
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Is there sufficient evidence in sources A to F to explain why there was an anti-war movement in the United States during the late 1960s and 1970s?
This would have made most people against the war and protest for an anti-war movement. This source merely shows destruction. It only shows how the US army were tormenting the Vietnamese and not the other side of the story. This source is a limited piece of evidence because photographs only shoot one place at one time. Even though it is a powerful source, it does not give a specific date to when it was published and it does not show who it is for or who produced it.
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Armed forces were fighting the war in Vietnam and the momentum issue of helping them out also contributed to Johnson's decision to help South Vietnam. USA backed up the South Vietnam government. This action was intended to bring in a US government into South of Vietnam. This meant that President Johnson had very little choice of backing away from the war in Vietnam. President Johnson also had to show the world that the United States was prepared to help countries that faced invasion by communism. This is strongly mentioned in President Johnson's speech that America is committed to its 'word'.
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Study Source A. Do you agree with this interpretation of the problems faced by United States soldiers in Vietnam? Use the source and knowledge from your studies to explain your answer.
Bilton produced a video about My Lai that was aired in 1988. In the video he interviewed a number of US soldiers who commented on their experiences in Vietnam and the events at My Lai. If this extract is based on the information from those sources, this may make the extract more reliable with regard to problems faced by US soldiers at My Lai because a lot of information about the incident was not made available at the time of the original inquiries into My Lai.
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According to Michael Arlen in 1965, it was called "living room war" as the media start to play an important role reporting the biggest story television news to the U.S. people. People can just feel like they were in the situation just in their living room. Even though radios and newspaper can give people the same information, still television was what people found more interested in. The U.S. used the advantage from television to handle many problems with the anti-war organizations.
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I know from my background knowledge that such tactics posed serious problems for the Americans. The aim of guerrilla tactics was to wear down the enemy and destroy their morale. The guerrillas worked in very small groups and with very few weapons. However, they were hard to tell apart from the peasants in the fields because they did not wear uniform. The US soldiers lived in constant fear of ambushes and booby traps. This was a poster produced by the North Vietnamese; and was aimed at persuading the South Vietnamese that guerrilla tactics were effective.
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How useful are sources A to C to explain why the United States became involved in the war in Vietnam?
This is apparent when Johnson begins to talk about `the freedom of the people of South Vietnam`. However, there is evidence to suggest that this was not the real reason for going to war. In 1954 the USA prevented free elections from taking place in Vietnam because it feared that the Communists would win. If the freedom of the Vietnamese was a priority for America, they would have allowed those elections to take place and the elected government, be it communist or democratic, would have come to power.
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The role of world's policeman also link back to the promises made in the Truman Doctrine and the formation of SEATO. Thirdly the source states that if America wasn't involved in Vietnam the battle "would be renewed in one country and then another." This makes large reference to the vast amount of countries becoming communist in Asia, also known as the domino theory. The domino theory is the fear that as one country falls to communism another country nearby will follow.
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This source can be seen as very biased due to it being a North Vietnamese poster which is advertising/showing the American citizens the troops in North Vietnamese as if they don't have an idea on what exactly they are suppose to be doing and that the fact they don't even know they are being watched. Therefore this source is irrelevant. Source G is a primary aftermath source of the My Lai massacre of 1968 which shows the response in 1968 of an American soldier after having just been notified about the massacre of 347 unarmed civilians.
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Following the "domino theory" they believed they had to "contain communism" no matter what the cost. This eventually failed and so the only thing left to do was to go into a war with North Vietnam. The conditions in Vietnam for the American soldiers were terrible, they never knew when of whether they would be soon attacked by the Vietcong. The fighting took place in forests and jungles which made it easy for the Vietcong to use the guerilla tactics. The Vietcong were ordinary people that were fighting for their independence, they had never been trained to fight like the Americans had but they did what they could in order to help their country and follow in what they believed in.
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This meant that everybody in America was paying for getting involved in a war that didn't have anything to do with them really, because of the rise in taxes and higher inflation goods in America cost much more. These tax rises made the government very unpopular as it was them who raised them in order to off the debts. A second consequence of all this spending was that all the social programmes that had been planned to help the least well off were scrapped because America couldn't afford to pull it off.
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This would benefit the Vietcong, but cause a lot of trouble and fear for the US army, as they would not know if a Vietnamese person working in their camp was innocent or a Vietcong, not knowing to kill them or not, which would have also been a way to lower the morale of US by fear of not knowing who is on their side and having to be very careful. This method would also be beneficial the Vietcong, as they would be able to be disguised as innocent Vietnamese workers and spy or set up a surprise attack on camps or US troops.
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