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Nato is an international organization that is established by signing the North Atlantic Treaty in 1949.

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Nato is an international organization that is established by signing the North Atlantic Treaty in 1949. The basic purpose of its establishment lied in the strong desire of North America to act together with Europe against the Soviet threat. Besides contributing to West European unity and security, Nato also gave chance to the United States to participate in improving of the economic and military conditions in Europe. With the declaration of the ending of the Cold War in 1990 and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, there arose some disputes among scholars over the issue of whether the organization will survive or not in the absence of a Soviet threat. Robert B. McCalla and Ronald Krebs are the two of these scholars that though there are some similarities in their way of structuring their arguments, such that both of them provided us with a synthesis combining two opposing schools of thought (neorealism vs. neoliberalism/institutionalism), the school of thought they put more emphasis on differs. On the one hand, McCalla believes in the persistence of Nato in the absence of a threat, reasoning that there are other functions than military that keep the members together and even claims that there may arise disputes between allies in the existence of a threat. ...read more.


In these terms, he refutes the argument giving the example of how quickly Nato was formed when it faced with the Soviet threat and in contrast, how much time has passed after the disappearance of the threat. What is more, his argument also contains some elements that show he is in favor of the organizational theory. He claims that if the organizational development of an alliance is high, these organizational interests will work to prolong the life of the alliance because in this way, the alliances will benefit themselves. He also gives importance to a regime that the alliance is at the center of. He argues that attendant norms, procedures, and functions will respond more slowly to changes in threats than the one that has not developed these norms. He finishes his argument stating that Nato's original purposes were broad and have continued to grow because for him, its functions are not limited to military functions. It also has mechanisms for solving disputes, coordinating foreign and military policies and consulting mechanisms on political matters. Secondly, Kreb's argument will be summarized. Like McCalla, he also provides the reader with a syntheis by combining both the realist and institutionalist perspectives and defines this approach 'Realist Institutionalism' approach. ...read more.


Being encouraged by their membership in Nato, both Greece and Turkey considered a more active role in regional affairs. Also, the alliance's military assistance is another convincing example of his hypothesis stated earlier that alliance can deepen and intensify conflict among its members. Another point I found convincing is the way he disagrees and supports with examples the neoliberal institutionalist claim that issue linkage and transparancy brings cooperation. When he says that issue linkage creates deterioration rather than cooperation, he supports his argument by saying that these two countries manipulated these linkages to their political and strategic advantage thus, broadening the conflict and levels of tension. As for the issue of transparency, he makes his argument more convincing by stating that instead of generating cooperation, matters turned on intensions on how one expected the other would use its armed forces. One last point about the reasons why I found Kreb's argument more convincing is that he is besides being objective, provides us with the two sides of the realist institutionalist approach what furtherly means is that he does not deny that certain aspects of alliances help moderate the rivalries within. One example is that Nato ensured that Greek and Turkish leaders met regularly and the other example can be that their membership in the alliance provided the United States with a measure of influence over their behaviour. Derya Suner/99036460 ...read more.

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