• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Nato is an international organization that is established by signing the North Atlantic Treaty in 1949.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Nato is an international organization that is established by signing the North Atlantic Treaty in 1949. The basic purpose of its establishment lied in the strong desire of North America to act together with Europe against the Soviet threat. Besides contributing to West European unity and security, Nato also gave chance to the United States to participate in improving of the economic and military conditions in Europe. With the declaration of the ending of the Cold War in 1990 and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, there arose some disputes among scholars over the issue of whether the organization will survive or not in the absence of a Soviet threat. Robert B. McCalla and Ronald Krebs are the two of these scholars that though there are some similarities in their way of structuring their arguments, such that both of them provided us with a synthesis combining two opposing schools of thought (neorealism vs. neoliberalism/institutionalism), the school of thought they put more emphasis on differs. On the one hand, McCalla believes in the persistence of Nato in the absence of a threat, reasoning that there are other functions than military that keep the members together and even claims that there may arise disputes between allies in the existence of a threat. ...read more.

Middle

In these terms, he refutes the argument giving the example of how quickly Nato was formed when it faced with the Soviet threat and in contrast, how much time has passed after the disappearance of the threat. What is more, his argument also contains some elements that show he is in favor of the organizational theory. He claims that if the organizational development of an alliance is high, these organizational interests will work to prolong the life of the alliance because in this way, the alliances will benefit themselves. He also gives importance to a regime that the alliance is at the center of. He argues that attendant norms, procedures, and functions will respond more slowly to changes in threats than the one that has not developed these norms. He finishes his argument stating that Nato's original purposes were broad and have continued to grow because for him, its functions are not limited to military functions. It also has mechanisms for solving disputes, coordinating foreign and military policies and consulting mechanisms on political matters. Secondly, Kreb's argument will be summarized. Like McCalla, he also provides the reader with a syntheis by combining both the realist and institutionalist perspectives and defines this approach 'Realist Institutionalism' approach. ...read more.

Conclusion

Being encouraged by their membership in Nato, both Greece and Turkey considered a more active role in regional affairs. Also, the alliance's military assistance is another convincing example of his hypothesis stated earlier that alliance can deepen and intensify conflict among its members. Another point I found convincing is the way he disagrees and supports with examples the neoliberal institutionalist claim that issue linkage and transparancy brings cooperation. When he says that issue linkage creates deterioration rather than cooperation, he supports his argument by saying that these two countries manipulated these linkages to their political and strategic advantage thus, broadening the conflict and levels of tension. As for the issue of transparency, he makes his argument more convincing by stating that instead of generating cooperation, matters turned on intensions on how one expected the other would use its armed forces. One last point about the reasons why I found Kreb's argument more convincing is that he is besides being objective, provides us with the two sides of the realist institutionalist approach what furtherly means is that he does not deny that certain aspects of alliances help moderate the rivalries within. One example is that Nato ensured that Greek and Turkish leaders met regularly and the other example can be that their membership in the alliance provided the United States with a measure of influence over their behaviour. Derya Suner/99036460 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE International relations 1900-1939 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE International relations 1900-1939 essays

  1. "Was the treaty of Versailles fair?"

    For example the Saar coalfields. Altogether Germany lost 16% of their total industry. One of the areas lost was Alsace - Lorraine which was home to many German people. All of this would not help Germany financially or in terms of the military.

  2. Notes on International Relations 1919-1939

    freedom o 1924-1929 Extremist parties lost their appeal o Technological achievements of the Weimar Republic * The German ship Bremen crossed the Atlantic from Cherbourg to New York in four days 12 hours and 17 minutes in June of 1929 to win the Blue Riband for the fastest ocean passage.

  1. Mao Gandhi Compare Contrast Essay

    KMT as otherwise he would have been easily crushed like other extremists. Using ideas of Guerilla Warfare, he and his army of Communist supporters used 'hit and run' techniques which involved small scale terrorism and included raiding warehouses, enemy camps and bases for weapons and arms.

  2. In order for it to succeed, must a strategic alliance be an alliance between ...

    An asymmetry of resources results in unilateral dependence, in which the incentive to be flexible becomes weaker (Heide, 1994). The alliance must also be built upon trust and flexibility between the partners and should not depend on contractual obligations to sustain a successful alliance (Aulakh, P, S & Madhok, 2002)

  1. History - International Relation Coursework

    Do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer. [10] 7 (a) What were Hitler's aims in his foreign policy? [4] (b) Why did the League of Nations fail to stop Hitler's aggression? [6] (c) "The most important reason why Hitler had success in foreign policy was the policy of appeasement."

  2. The Antarctic Treaty: When and why was the treaty formed?

    the Treaty; stipulates that Antarctica should be used exclusively for peaceful purposes, military activities, such as the establishment of military bases or weapons testing, are specifically prohibited; * promotes international scientific cooperation including the exchange of research plans and personnel, and requires that results of research be made freely available;

  1. Piedmont for a leader in establishing unity.

    The Austrians held the famous "Quadrilateral" of Verona, Peschiera, Legnago and Mantua, all places of great strength. This gave their army a link with Austria so that they could receive reinforcements. The discipline of their troops and the military skill of their commander, Radetzky, could not be equalled by the Piedmontese.

  2. History Revision notes - International Relations: Why did WW2 break out? 1929-1939

    Hitler told Sudeten Germans he would support them if they caused further difficulties, and on September 1938, they began rioting. President Benes crushed the rioters, but knew German intervention was inevitable. Chamberlain met with Hitler and Benes to discuss the demands.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work