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Newcastle Keep.

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Introduction

History around us Coursework Newcastle Keep a) Newcastle Keep was the first Castle to be built on old Fort Ruins in Newcastle. Robert, who was the son of William the Conqueror, built Newcastle Keep 1080. Newcastle keep was built to protect the last bridging point over the River Tyne. The bridge was the last crossing over the River Tyne before reaching the sea; this was because as the River got closer to the sea, the River became too wide to build across. The Castle was built to protect the bridge from the Scots because this bridge held the main route between England and Scotland. There were seventeen other Castles built in England to protect the country from the attacking Scots as well, these include Warkworth and Bamburgh. When Newcastle Keep was built, the Normans were talking over England. So Newcastle Keep was used to protect the Normans while they gained control of the local people. Newcastle Keep was built in a specific position in Newcastle. It was built upon a high hill overlooking the bridge and the River Tyne; this was a good geographical and defensive tactic. If the Castle is on a high hill you can see for miles and you can spot attackers coming towards your castle and stop them. Also it is hard for attackers to climb up a steep hill to get to your Castle. The castle was built next to the river; this is a good place to build a Castle because when boats and ships come along the river, the Castle would send out Taxmen to collect tax from the transport progressing up the river. ...read more.

Middle

More space was needed to build things such as shops, railways, hotels etc, so Newcastle Keep was left to decline as the Castle walls were removed to allow the building to take place. The Industrial Revolution was a reason why Newcastle Keep was left and destroyed. Around Newcastle Keep now are railway lines, pubs, hotels, shops, garages, car parks etc. So another reason why Newcastle Keep declined was the Industrial Revolution in the 18th and 19th Century. This was also a national reason for Newcastle Keep declining. c) Newcastle Keep is a very atypical Castle in terms of style, as there is evidence of it being square keep and transitional style. A square keep style Castle has square shaped towers on each corner and has Norman style windows and archways. The square keep style Castles were built in 1100-1200 and were the first style of stone Castle after the wooden Motte and Bailey. A transitional style Castle has rounded corners; this style was around in 1200-1300. Newcastle Keep is so atypical that even Historians are arguing and disagreeing about the style of the Castle. Barbara Harbottle stated that it was a square keep Castle in 'The Castle of Newcastle Upon Tyne', however Frank Graham said that Newcastle Keep was transitional style, in a book about Newcastle City. No one could decide whether Newcastle Keep was a square keep castle or a transitional style Castle because in 1168-1178 when Newcastle Keep was first built the Castle was definitely a square keep style Castle. ...read more.

Conclusion

However Newcastle Keep is also atypical in some ways. Due to the realisation of the weakness of the Northwest corner of the Castle in around 1200, Newcastle Keep had to be developed. The Northwest corner was strengthened as a transitional style rounded corner/tower was rebuilt; this made Newcastle Keep a mix of styles, square keep and transitional. This was unusual because all of the other Castles such as Warkworth and Durham were either square keep or transitional. Newcastle Keep Warkworth Castle Another reason why Newcastle Keep is atypical is because of the early decline of the Castle. In 1280 the town walls were built around Newcastle protecting it from attackers, this made Newcastle Keep become less important. The early decline of Newcastle Keep made it atypical because while Newcastle Keep was decaying other Castles like Warkworth were developing and improving. Warkworth developed in the 14th Century as a new Keep was added. Warkworth Castle was very important for all of the duration it was used; it was that important it was used for Royal visits and as a setting in one of Shakespeare's plays. This is totally the opposite of Newcastle Keep. Newcastle Keep was unimportant and insignificant so anther reason why Newcastle Keep is very atypical and different to other Castles is it's lack of importance. The only time Newcastle Keep was important was in 1292 when the King of England and the King of Scotland joined as one and reconciled in Newcastle Keep. So looking at this Newcastle Keep is very typical and also atypical compared to other Castle. Andrew Marshall 10 A 3 ...read more.

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