• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
  5. 5
  6. 6
  7. 7
  8. 8
  9. 9
  10. 10
  11. 11
  12. 12
  13. 13

Northern Ireland - The Good Friday Agreement was created in April 1998, and then was signed by Peter Mandelson, secretary of Ulster, on December 2nd 1999.

Extracts from this document...


GCSE History: Ireland Coursework Section 1 The newspaper article from The Sun on December 3rd, 1999, states that Tony Blair, Prime Minister of Britain, gives power to Ulster, and this is the main focus of the article. It also describes Bertie Ahern, Prime Minister of the Republic of Ireland, "Signing away his country's constitutional claim on the six counties of Northern Ireland." Plus the article describes the Good Friday Agreement, and how the IRA are planning to discuss handing over their weapons. The Good Friday Agreement was created in April 1998, and then was signed by Peter Mandelson, secretary of Ulster, on December 2nd 1999. It was created at this time because in the spring of 1998, the British and Irish Governments, working closely with politicians in Northern Ireland, felt that it was the right time to announce the terms of the Good Friday Agreement. They announced it because they hoped it would be a lasting peace settlement for the north. Basically the agreement included a new government for Northern Ireland. This government would sit at Stormont and would have a close working relationship with the Irish Republic government. As well as this there would be greater 'cross border' cooperation between security forces. Therefore there would be the release of prisoners convicted of terrorism and also prisoners convicted of sectarian offences. It was then on the 22nd of May, 1998, that all Irish people were asked to make their decision in a referendum. The results were strongly in favour of accepting the Good Friday Agreement as in Ulster, 71.12% of the people who voted said yes to accepting the agreement and only 28.22% said no. Also in the Republic, a staggering 94.39% of the people who voted said yes to accepting the agreement and only 5.61% said no. Plus, altogether 2,480,174 people voted. Tony Blair was exceptionally pleased with these results and said, "A day of joy. ...read more.


Clinton proposed an International Body on Arms Decommissioning, led by George Mitchell, the American Senator. Because of this, the proposal became better known as the Mitchell Commission. Then in 1996, the Mitchell Commission suggested that decommissioning took place in order to prepare for all-party talks. However, Sinn F�in requested that they took part before the IRA gave up their arms, but the British government found this unacceptable and so Sinn F�in could not participate. Because of this, in February 1996, the IRA tragically ended their cease-fire and bombed Canary Wharf in London and also bombed Manchester. Next the Northern Ireland Forum was to be elected, even though the IRA had proclaimed that it was going to return to its 'armed struggle'. The Northern Ireland Forum was to be elected as in June 1996, all-party talks began. The Secretary of State invited parties to the Forum who agreed with the Mitchell principles. However, Sinn F�in was not included due to links with the IRA. The IRA had planted bombs in Manchester and also in Germany. Plus in 1996, there was the marching season and over 3000 marches a year take place. However, for the second time running, marches at Dumcree in Portadown were banned, but the police then took down barricades so that there was no severe violence. Plus the government created a committee to recommend them on marches and this committee recommended a Parade Commission. All-party talks continued intermittently during 1996 and early 1997. Then in May 1997 there was a general election in the UK. This brought in a new government in Westminster. Plus Mo Mowlam became the new Secretary of State for Northern Ireland. Sinn F�in won 16% of the votes also, and the IRA announced a new ceasefire in July. Then in September Sinn F�in were finally allowed to join the talks. The Good Friday Agreement was then created in April 1998, and then was signed by Peter Mandelson, secretary of Ulster, on December 2nd 1999. ...read more.


This was basically a non-sectarian organisation that was concerned with social reform and non-violence. Basically the Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association's main demands are the end of 'B Specials' and a repeal of the Special Powers Act. Also they demanded fair access to housing and laws against prejudice by the local governments. These demand were justified, but this greatly angered extreme unionists. Also, Terence O'Neill (Northern Ireland Prime Minister from 1963 to 1969) was fair to Catholics and wanted to include Catholics in the government, but he had strong opposition however. In 1966 UVF was re-formed and then viciously attacked non-violent civil rights marches. In 1969 many civil rights marches ended with extreme violence. An example of this was at Derry, at Burntollet Bridge, where peaceful marchers were attacked and a riot was formed. Catholics created barricades, but then the RUC removed them by force. Another example was at Belfast, at Catholic Falls Road, where there was even more violence and the 'B Specials' even had to be called upon for backup. In August of 1969, the British government sent troops to keep order in Northern Ireland. Then in 1971, the UK and Northern Ireland governments decided to detain suspected terrorists and the majority of these were Catholic. This was called the policy of internment. I thus conclude that all of the information above shows just how Ireland's current situation has gradually been caused over such a long period of time by war and conflict. It originally began as an issue of landownership, then communities divided by power, wealth and religion. By the 1800s a new political dimension had developed after the Act of Union, with Nationalists and Unionists entering the scene. After partition in 1920, the issues in Northern Ireland revolved around which community would dominate the politics of the province. This then led to the creation of the 'Orange State' and discrimination of Catholics. By the beginning of the 1970s, the involvement of the British government had added a new dimension as the Nationalists focussed political resentment against British control in Northern Ireland. Iden Ranapour 11B 1 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Northern Ireland 1965-85 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Northern Ireland 1965-85 essays

  1. Development of Irish Nationalism 1798-1921

    The Dail was backed up by the IRA under Michael Collins. 1919 IRA begin a campaign of murder and harassment against British police and soldiers. To destroy British power in Ireland and get them to withdraw. Irishmen were shocked by the activities of the IRA, and support for SF briefly waned.

  2. Conflict in Ireland

    Connolly was prepared to die in a 'blood sacrifice'. Easter Monday, 1916, was arguably the core of the rising; the rebels conquered the General Post Office and declared Ireland an Independent Republic, The Post Office was then used as their foundation throughout the rising. British troops arrived in large quantities, however this did not intimidate the nationalists, tactics were

  1. What made the Good Friday Agreement possible in 1998?

    The Catholic Church, as a whole, played a major part but also individuals did as well; priests acted as messengers between groups trying to sort out problems, this then connects with next link. With the Catholic Church persuading Sinn Fein to become a lot more peaceful, and priests acting as

  2. Northern Ireland Essay

    Irelands past has made its present into what it is today, and the present will determine the countries future.

  1. How successful has the Good Friday Agreement (in Northern Ireland) been?

    Decommissioning remains as uncertain as ever. The IRA is far too powerful in the peace process, and Unionist, won't concede anymore without the IRA giving up some of its weapons first.

  2. "Why were Ulster Unionists so determined to resist home rule for Ireland in the ...

    Ireland would be run by the Irish Nationalist Party, who were very much opposed to Ulster and the Conservative Party who backed them. The economic difference between Ulster and the Rest of Ireland was very obvious, as everywhere in Ireland was Agrarian, except for Ulster where there was a "truly industrial economy".

  1. Ireland - What are the main differences between the beliefs of the Republicans/Nationalists and ...

    The Good Friday agreement was much more successful than the previous attempts at peace. By now it was becoming obvious that most ordinary people from every part of Ireland wanted peace in their lives. In May 1998, when people were asked to vote on the Good Friday Agreement, 71% of those in Northern Ireland said yes.

  2. The underlying cause of the conflict between Northern Ireland (Ulster) and The Republic of ...

    in Ireland, to try and convince them to stop the union with Northern Ireland. This war, known as The Irish War of Independence lasted 2 years, in which several 750 civilians were killed, which is often the case in any form of violent conflict.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work