• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Political Problems - Treaty of Versailles

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Political Problems Treaty of Versailles - The government had signed Treaty despite 'war guilt' clause that stated that Germany had to pay reparations to make up for the cost of damage during war. Many believed the politicians had betrayed that army. Hitler and many others believed that they had been "stabbed in the back" by the "November Criminals". Communist rising Communist group called the Spartakists, led by Rosa Luxemburg and Carl Liebknecht, attempted to begin a revolution but the rising was suppressed with the help of the army and the leaders were executed. Kapp Putsch - Wolfgang Kapp led right-wing attempt to seize power in Berlin in 1920. Army refused to act and the official government left Berlin; but a general strike by the trade unions meant that Kapp could not control the situation and the rebellion failed. Hitler's Beer Hall Putsch - In 1923 Hitler led a right wing attempt to seize power in Munich but his attempt collapsed when he faced opposition from the police. Economic Problems Reparations - The Allies now fixed the total amount of reparations at 132,000 million marks (6,600 million British pounds). Germany claimed this was completely unrealistic since she had lost important resources and industrial land because of the Treaty in 1919. Hyperinflation and the invasion of the Ruhr - The government continued to print paper money even when it did not have sufficient resources to support the currency; this led to constantly rising inflation. By 1923 prices had become ridiculous, although people who had taken out large loans (such as industrialists) benefited, and German goods were cheap for other countries to buy, which stimulated trade and employment. When Germany could not make the reparations payment due in 1923, France and Belgium invaded the Ruhr, which made the economic situation even worse. Social Problems Social effects of hyperinflation - money almost worthless, many people couldn't maintain standard of living. ...read more.

Middle

f) Hitler did important work in restructuring the party so that when Germany next hit a crisis they would be ready. Arguably despite looking very bleak, their fortunes were bound to improve since behind the scenes Germany's economy was anyway heading for trouble: Above all there was the general dependence on American loans: when these were recalled in 1929, following the Wall Street Crash, the economy collapsed. Meanwhile Hitler brought the Nazis together in a new national party (Strasser and Goebbels joining him, and he worked out the Gauleiter system (local party leaders) so that they could compete nationwide and worked hard with meting, local newspapers and above all a superb propaganda machine under Goebbels. What best explains Hitler's rise to Power 1929-33? Nb You need to distinguish between 3 phases: 1923-9 when following the Munich Putsch, the Nazis remained an fringe party winning only 12 seats: essentially because in the years of prosperity the German electorate were mostly happy in voting for moderate democratic parties (the largest were the social democrats) rather than extremists; 1929-33 when the Wall Street Crash, plunging Germany too into Depression, transformed Nazi fortunes because of the economic chaos: voters began to feel that Weimar governments (weak coalitions) could not cope with the Depression and began to vote for the extremists (communists as well as Nazis); and 1933-4 when Hitler (due to a right wing deal between Hitler, Von Papen and von Schleicher) became Chancellor (prime minister) of a coalition between Nazis and Nationalists, but was able to consolidate his power and transform it into a dictatorship by 1934. With a question like 'What best' or "is this the only reason" > you need to argue the comparative importance of a range of factors. Here: 1 growth in popularity of Nazis (but who voted for them and why) 2 Hitler's own political abilities 3 failure of Weimar to win loyalty and confidence especially with the depression. 4 the disunity on the left 5 the intrigue of right wing politicians. ...read more.

Conclusion

and as the economy recovered, so did confidence in Hitler that he was tackling the problems of poverty, rural indebtedness and unemployment. A turning point was reached when the Army did not oppose Hitler over the Night of the Long Knives: many now too afraid to oppose Hitler (earlier e.g. the boycott of Jewish shops had failed through lack of public approval) 5 To the prospects of the economy (and the reversal of Versailles), there was another set of considerations in the 1930s: another world war; and the memories of the trenches were still very vivid. Hitler here faced a basic weakness in his popularity. He gave a hugely important speech on 17 May 1935 in which he promised that his only task was 'to secure peace in the world' 6 Of the different sections of the German people: Workers: had not voted for him in large numbers and were skeptical that he could end the Depression: shocked by the abolition of trade unions, but actually did welcome the jobs he created and the 'strength through joy organisation. Peasant farmers: had voted in large numbers and stood to gain from the self sufficiency, fixed price policy and the security to their possession of land that the Nazis promised. The Industrialists: felt that Hitler could stop the communist threat and strongly approved of his measures: the Enabling bill and abolition of trade unions especially: rearmament might bring them fat contracts and profits: so would the public spending programme on motorways and schools and hospitals. The Middle Classes: angered by the hyperinflation of 1923 and in despair over the Depression, welcomed strong leadership and national unity offered: again strongly anti communist: apprehensive about another war though and disliked the anti Semitism The Army: welcomed the promise of rearmament, apprehensive about war (might lose); disliked Hitler as an upstart and feared the challenge of the SA. Hitler's elimination of the latter won the Army over to his rule. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Germany 1918-1939 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Germany 1918-1939 essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Treaty Of versailles

    5 star(s)

    Other states raised taxes to pay for the way. However the Kaisers government planned to pay war debts by extracting reparations from the defeated states. This could not now happen as firstly the Kaiser abdicated into exile. Secondly, because Germany had lost the war. However had Germany won the war, we get the idea of what the treaty from Germany would have been.

  2. Explain how the Treaty of Versailles created many problems for Germany in the period ...

    The 'putsch' (Armed Uprising) instantly collapsed and Kapp abandoned his planes and fled to Sweden and the government returned to Berlin. The putsch was a sign of hatred for the Treaty and Kapp resented the treaty. This was a political problem.

  1. Weimar, 1918 - 1923

    AJ Nicholls "Joseph Wirth ... In some ways he was the most attractive leader the Republic had produced since its foundation ... His attractive personality, parliamentary skill and direct but effective technique as a platform speaker." Wirth's period in office saw the start of the policy known as 'fulfilment'.

  2. How did the Treaty of Versailles contribute to Hitler’s rise to power?

    Any lawful process is slow. Sooner or later we shall have a majority and after that we shall have Germany. As soon as Hitler was taken out of prison he began building up the nazi party so it could win power democratically.

  1. 'German Foreign Policy was mainly motivated by the need to regain territory lost by ...

    Therefore, this is the reason why Hitler wanted to invade Russia and to stop the threat of Bolshevik takeover, as well as the prospect of gaining more 'living space.' The last factor, which could have been motivated by the German foreign policy, was the abolishment of the Treaty of Versailles.

  2. Long term causes like the economic depression 1929-1933, and the failure of the Weimar ...

    The reduced army, navy, and air force was further humiliation, making a strong nation weak. Furthermore, many Germans and many ordinary German soldiers did not think that they had been defeated. They thought they had signed a truce and that President Wilson's 14 points and talk of a fair and just peace would be the basis of a peace treaty.

  1. The rise of Hitlers power was based upon a number of long term problems ...

    With 1/4 of their land being lost and now completely land locked Germany was struggling, to make matter worse Germanys largest industrial area - the Ruhr had now been disarmed of German troops and all exports where to be sent to the "winners", as a form of reparation.

  2. Life under the Nazis - who was better and worse off.

    the hyperinflation and the depression and so they were the main people in which he needed to deliver to. Life was improved for many, as there were no Communists to threaten their businesses or property so they felt safe. Many of the middle classes also liked the order and discipline that the Nazis had brought to the country.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work