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Prohibition party.

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Introduction

Prohibition party Prohibition, in the eyes of most politicians, was a tough issue that would bring unpopularity no matter where they stood on it. Politicians, who operate on the basis of public opinion, feared that if they were to take a position to advocate or oppose prohibition, they would receive unfavorable results in the next election. As such, neither the Republicans nor the Democrats would take a stand against the saloon, forcing those who advocated the prohibition to find another party to run under. The Prohibition Party was created in 1869 to fill this need and in the election of 1872 the party "ran its candidates in the presidential election on a platform of universal suffrage, business regulation, public education, encouragement of immigration, and constitutional prohibition." However, despite the publics call for a candidate to support their desire for prohibition, the Prohibition Party's candidate received only five thousand votes out of a total of more than six million. The Democratic and Republican parties, as the major political parties, could ignore a candidate that only spoke for such a small percentage of the voting population, thus making the Prohibition Party's presence in the 1872 election ineffective. However, by 1884 the second wave of the prohibition had reached its apex and the election results during that year reflected it. The Prohibition Party candidate, John P. St. John, the dry Governor of Kansas, received 24,999 dry votes in the State of New York--votes which would have been mostly Republican. ...read more.

Middle

These additional funds allowed for the Anti-Saloon league to "launch a propaganda campaign of its own." The next few years were spent gathering funding, support, and forming the internal structure of an independent organization. By 1913 the Anti-Saloon league had "transformed itself into an independent temperance agency." Its structure was indeed that of an organization; consisting of its own constituency, leaders, policies, and procedures. After nearly twenty years in the making, the Anti-Saloon league, now an extremely flexible federation of state anti-saloon leagues, had the power to move quickly against saloons by tapping into a large body of voters and enforce political pressure in the favor of prohibition. And it did use that influence; "In a 20th anniversary convention held in Columbus, Ohio, the League announced its campaign to achieve national prohibition through a constitutional amendment. Allied with other temperance forces, especially the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, the League in 1916 oversaw the election of the two-thirds majorities necessary in both houses of Congress to initiate what became the Eighteenth Amendment to the Constitution of the United States" Eighteenth Amendment On December 18, 1917, both houses with the required constitutional majority passed the adoption of the joint resolution, and transmitted it to the states for their consideration. The Secretary of State announced on January 29, 1919 that on January 16th thirty-six states had ratified the amendment, therefore it would become part of the Constitution. The Eighteenth Amendment became effective on January 16, 1920. ...read more.

Conclusion

Haynes' press releases spoke of the imminent collapse of bootlegging, while his political appointees made the Bureau a center for corruption and graft. The graft and corruption faced by the Prohibition Bureau stemmed from several sources. The methods and organization of the Bureau were hopelessly inadequate. The agency itself was not under Civil Service regulations. Agents were expected to work long hours and put their lives in danger for salaries that compared unfavorable with those of garbage collectors. In 1920 agents made between $1200 and $2000 a year. This fact made them easy victims to corruption. For the whole of the United States the total number of agents and investigators varied between 1500 and 2300 men, and the entire staff of the Prohibition Bureau never exceed 4500 men. Men, money and supplies were continually lacked by the Bureau. War Prohibition Act-1918 World War II produced and atmosphere of enthusiasm for prohibition. The need to sacrifice individual pleasures for the sake of the war became the underlying theme. When conserving food resources became an apparent need, the drys used this opportunity to emphasize the waste of grain for the production of alcohol. In April 1917 Congress adopted a temporary wartime prohibition measure as a way to conserve grain for the army, America's allies, and domestic population. Thus, the production of distilled spirits for the duration of World War II was banned in August 1917 by the Lever Food and Fuel Control Act. Manufacturing and sale of all intoxicating beverages of more than 2.75 percent alcohol content, beer, wine, and hard liquor were forbidden by the War Prohibition Act of November 1918 until demobilization was completed. ...read more.

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