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Russia's sense of uniqueness

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Introduction

Russian Background Russia's sense of uniqueness- * Very big- geographical size Strength- millions of ppl therefore huge potential. Weakness- makes communication hard and some parts are ungoverned. * Politically quite backward- Tsar (the little father) Autocracy based on the divine right of the tsar autocrat. No middle class therefore no stability * Socially backwards 80% of pop = peasants (no industrialized middle class) * Economically backward- lack of industry Supported by other European countries therefore can pull out Foreign countries take wealth * Orthodox faith- Very religious- catholic/protestant * 1905- Russia (European) V Japan (Asiatic) Racism, believed Russia should have won Shows military backwardness- 1 way trains therefore slows armies down * Russia is not just European. Its Euro Asian (Europe and Asia) Europe side = power and democracy, Asian side = trying to take over. Political Tradition-p58 Revolutionists/Illegal parties Reformist/Legal parties Marxists Popularists (based around Russia's peasant commune-(MIR-space station named aft it)-Russia's got its own soln) Narodniks Liberalism- Becomes legal in 1902 Social democrats (SD's) Split in 1905 Peoples will- (assonate the Tsar- Alexander 2) Octoberists- cons. "Revolution" -Oct manifesto Kadets- Q,radical. Constitutional democrats. Want more Liberal reform Mensheviks (Minority) Bolsheviks (Majority)"the reds" Social revolutionarists - SR's They centre around- Duma = Parliament Zemstro = Regional councils Left SR's- radical Right SR's- conservative 1917-24 * There are 2 revolutions 1) Liberal in march/Feb. 2) Bolsheviks Oct/Nov (rule Moscow ant Petrograd) * Civil war till 1921- therefore alters Bols politics Stalin's biography-1979-1917 Personality- * V.hard tough man "ruff and ready" * V.methodical * Organised * Good understanding of ppl * Excellent memory Early life- * Real name- Joseph Vissarionovich Djugashivili * Nickname- Sozo * Stalin means 'man of steel' * Born- 1879 in Gori, Georgia-'a wild and rugged ...read more.

Middle

* The end of the L'ists finally came when their supporters took 2 the streets in 1927. They were branded as factionalists (law against it since 1921) and therefore expelled from the party. Phase 3 * Rightists = Bukharin, Tomsky and Rykov. * As a group they were much less of a threat than Trotsky or L'ists. * Apart from Tomsky they lacked any notable power base. * Tomsty's power base was based around the TU's which although were [powerful were less powerful than Trotsky's which was the Red Army. * Aside from their lack of PB the R'ists were also extremely cautious 2 avoid charges of factionalism. * Also, the added prob that they supported the NEP was becoming increasingly out of tune with the rest of the party. (Capitalist syst therefore should not be supported be the B's) * End of the R'ists follows the same sort of pattern as the L'ists- 1) They lost their power base 2 S supporters. 2) They were accused of factionalism. 3) They were expelled from the party. !!Main Factors!! * Syst within the Soviet Union (rules and laws). * Q of power bases. * Issue of policies. * The skills of different individuals as politician. * Issue of luck!! * Personality and background. The struggle for power- who would succeed Lenin? Koba/Stalin- * 1922- General secretary etc Trotsky * Started early political career with L but moved more towards Mensheviks in 1905. * Had a gd rep with Mens- led the Men line on the St Petersburg Soviet. * Spent 4.5yrs in prison. * Pol activities help him 2 establish rep as an outstanding writer and intellectual. ...read more.

Conclusion

3. Offers stability- a restyle offers turmoil from was and revolution. 4. Allows Russian communists 2 maintain dominance of world socialism. 5. Meant S lack of European language was no longer important or a handicap. 6. It seems 2 prove S credentials as a theorist separate from T. NEP During the civil war there had been War Communism- Bols won the war but the victory was accompanied by a series of eco problems- 1. Famine 2. Industrial Chaos 3. Political problems linked 2 economy- (production declined, peasants revolt) 4. De-population 5. Lack of specialists Turning point for economic policy comes in 1921- 'Kronstracht?? rising'. This led to the NEP. This policy re-introduced 'capitalism- market economy'. To start with the NEP produced controversy- many terming it 'the new exploitation of the proletariat' they feared it would undermine the socialist state by creating wealthy merchants (Nepmen) and a class of wealthy peasants. The Bols that opposed this from the start were called 'Leftists'- they believed that much harsher measures were needed to force the peasantry to provide the capital needed for industrialisation. That argument was known as the 'Teleological approach'. The 'Rightists' believed that the peasants would naturally provide capital if left alone. This is known as the 'Genetic/Organic approach'. The NEP debate became linked to the power struggle both through the way it defined alliances and was used as a weapon in the struggle. T was consistently anti-NEP; Z+K was usually anti-NEP although they abandoned this in the period of the Troika/Triumulate. B+R and Tomsky favoured the continuation of the NEP. S, based on the FYP's in the 1930's appears to have naturally favoured an anti-NEP teleological approach. However throughput the power struggle he (S) betrayed himself as a moderate and always found himself in line with the majority of the party. ...read more.

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