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Source H suggests that poor planning and Winston Churchill were responsible for what went wrong at Gallipoli - Is there sufficient evidence in Sources D-J to support this interpretation? Use the sources and your own knowledge to explain your answer.

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Introduction

Source H suggests that poor planning and Winston Churchill were responsible for what went wrong at Gallipoli. Is there sufficient evidence in Sources D-J to support this interpretation? Use the sources and your own knowledge to explain your answer. Source H, the basis of this essay, is an extract from a GCSE book written by Cate Brett. Brett says that Gallipoli was a complete failure due, in part, to Churchill's involvement. She also blames the British in general for the lack of planning. Perhaps the theme is both about bad planning and also that there was not enough of even that. This source was written for a GCSE audience. Usually GCSE versions of the truth are far more simplified than the view and writing of historians. Therefore it is safe to assume that this source may either be not entirely accurate, or not very detailed. The author does not say whether she blame the British civilian leaders or military leaders. It does not say anything of the spirit of the soldiers, nor how the campaign went in relation to other battles including the stalemate on the western front. ...read more.

Middle

I am more inclined to believe Captain Fermer's account as he was actually there and describes the reasons behind the failures. The intended audience is not clear. Source E comprises of two accounts of the campaign written by two soldiers who fought at Gallipoli. The account was written sometime after the war and so perhaps feelings could have changed. The intended audience is not clear. The first soldier tells us that the whole campaign was a complete failure and although more than sufficient numbers of men were allocated to take the peninsula, the planning and communication was so bad that whilst 2000 soldiers were sitting around, just a few miles away their colleagues were being slaughtered. Clearly not enough intelligence was gathered beforehand. This soldiers places the blame squarely on the shoulders of the generals (presumably Churchill included although technically he was actually first lord of the admiralty, not a general) for a distinct lack of planning. This part does, indeed, fully support Brett's source H although source E does not specifically name Churchill. The second soldier merely remarks that the generals had neither prepared the assault, nor informed the soldiers of their plans. ...read more.

Conclusion

as he was in charge of the naval attacks and it was Ian Hamilton who was in charge of the land campaign, which was ordered with protest from Churchill. This source does not support source H because it is of little relevance. According to Brooman, Hamilton did not even have access to maps and no experience of amphibious landings, so this means that perhaps the blame of source H on Churchill should be shifted to Hamilton and his advisors. The quote underneath the map seems to have no link to the map. Lloyd George says, " Expeditions which are decided upon and organised and organised with insufficient care generally end disastrously." This is true, as Hamilton did not prepare enough for the Gallipoli campaign ending in disaster. The quote, however, was written before the campaign, which means that it holds little relevance to source H although it may show us that the civilian leaders wanted a planned assault and it was the military leaders that did not do it properly. The intended audience is not clear. Source G "From this map, I can see the strategic importance of the Dardenelles and therefore Winston Churchill was correct to attack the straights with the aim of bringing Russia back into the war" Alex Lawrence GCSE 2002/3 History Coursework Analytical November 2002 ...read more.

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