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South Africa and Apartheid: Have the effects of apartheid disappeared?

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Introduction

Ko Takatsuka South Africa and Apartheid: Have the effects of apartheid disappeared? Apartheid was a system of laws, which were designed to keep five million white minority rule over the twenty-seven million black majority. Apartheid means 'separateness' and caused segregation between the two races. Although discrimination against blacks in South Africa existed long before, Apartheid officially started in 1948 and ended in 1994 after many campaigners including famously Nelson Mandela and trade sanctions, where many foreign countries would not buy South African goods which in turn increased unemployment and inflation. Instead, the African National Congress (ANC) came into power. In this essay I will analyse the social, economic and political effects during and after apartheid in South Africa. During apartheid South Africa social effects included the Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act in 1949, which banned marriages of whites to other races. The immorally Amendment Act in 1950 made all sexual relations between whites and non-whites illegal. The group Area Act in 1950 allocated separate areas to different races. This meant that non-white races where resettled by force. It worked out to 92.7% of the land being distributed to 1.5million whites and 7.3% of the land being distributed to 5.5 million blacks. The population Registration Act in 1950 meant that the entire population of South Africa was to be entered into a database classifying them as white, native or coloured. Coloured people were sub-classified into other ethnic groups. The Natives Act in 1952 required all black people over the age of 16 to carry a passport book with them. Legally, these were to be presented to the police on demand. It contained personal details, employment details, poll tax and influx control. Economic effects included the Separate Amenities Act in 1953, which provided separate amenities for white and non-white races and determined that separate amenities need not be of the same quality. The Bantu Education Act in 1953 meant that curriculum for black schools were limited, which meant that they could not have as many qualifications as the whites and so could not get as good jobs. ...read more.

Middle

Source C shows that in fact unemployment rates for Africans have increased since 1994. Although it may be argued that only one of the four races has decreased in unemployment, the graph shows that the unemployment has risen significantly higher than that of the whites which shows that employment is worse than it was under Apartheid. However, because the graph is five years out of date, unemployment rates are likely to be very different today, which may suggest that employment has improved since apartheid. This source is very reliable because it is official. Source D shows the average monthly salaries of African, coloured, Indian and white people in the construction industry. According to the graph, all races are receiving more Rands per month in 1997 than in 1996, however the whites still earn more Rands per month than Africans and also the amount of money increased from 1996 is considerably less than that of the white construction workers. However, it does not show what jobs the workers have within the industry so for example, the white workers may have a more skilled job by coincidence than the African workers. Also, the source is quite unreliable because it does not show where the results are from nor when these results were released. Source E shows the source of health care for each household. According to the graph, the vast majority of Africans received public healthcare with 81% using either a public hospital or clinic whereas the majority of whites received private healthcare with 80% using a private doctor or by other private means. I think that this graph shows an accurate picture of South Africa because, whereas for example education cannot improve in a single year, whether or not blacks can receive equal healthcare as whites can be improved. However, the caption states "healthcare standards for African do seem to have improved in recent years" which suggests that the situation was even worse before and the health care is getting better. ...read more.

Conclusion

This is because it will take many years for the blacks to go through the whole education system to show any difference and time takes long for blacks to earn enough money to buy land that is of better or as good quality and size as the whites. There is still segregation between the two races and several accurate attitudes in sources N, L, R and Q show the hatred and subtle racism that still exists years after Apartheid was abolished. I believe that since the ANC have come into power there have been a few positive changes such as better education and health care for blacks described in Sources A and E. However, I agree with Mr.Gershwin Kgemedi from Source R that apartheid still exists more economically than racially. This is because most of the sources show in graphs or in attitudes that whites live a better quality of life than blacks and are much richer. However, I believe that in generations to come this economic difference between whites and blacks will be reduced because the level of education is improving for blacks which will surely answer to the question raised by Robert McCrum in source R which is "where are the black entrepreneurs and businessmen who have the training and motivation to develop their country's huge potential?" Also, the majority of the attitudes about the future are optimistic and positive such as in Source R where the Kgemedi says, "it's going to be hard, but I'm positive". Also, apart from source C, which is inconsistent to other graphs comparing 1994 to a more recent date, they show that there have been small but sure improvements in average salaries (source D), healthcare (source F), and housing (source H). I believe that these improvements will slowly reduce inequality between the two races and I also believe that if South Africa improves economically and inequality between whites and blacks are reduced, south Africa will become more cosmopolitan and like New York and London today, and as a result of this I believe that racism will slowly disappear. ...read more.

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