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Stalin's Russia course work What was wrong with Russia before 1917?

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Introduction

Stalin's Russia course work What was wrong with Russia before 1917? Over 90% of people were poor peasants who were barley able to make a living, which was rarely there own land. Agriculture was in desperate need of modernization. Russia was economically backwards. The proletariat often lived in slums or even in the factories were they worked. They earned low wages and worked long hours. The workers weren't allowed to form trade unions to fight for better conditions. The police/army rapidly crushed any protests or strikes. Nicholas II was the only person who had the power to make laws in Russia. He appointed ministers but they were no more than advisers who were sometimes inefficient and corrupt. Nicholas' rule was enforced by the secret police (okhrana). Critics of the tsar were arrested, imprisoned and often sent to labor camps in Siberia. Books, newspapers etc. were censored and controlled to prevent criticism. The Russian Orthodox Church also supported the tsar and preached to its congregation that it was a sin to oppose him. Why was world war one so important for Russia? The First World War was so important as it highlighted the weakness of tsarist Russia and led to the collapse of tsarist rule in 1917. In 1915 tsar took personal command of the armed forces even though he had little military experience. Nicholas II was blamed for the continued defeats of the Russian army and now he wasn't in Petrograd he therefore couldn't rule the country so he could therefore be blamed for the suffering of the army and of the Russian people. ...read more.

Middle

They included landowners, religious groups, and royalists. o Also foreign intervention from countries alarmed by the Revolution, fearing the communists planned to spread Revolution throughout the world. These countries include Britain, France, USA and Japan all of which sent arms and men to help the Whites. o Whites were eventually defeated. They were weak, not united, lacked one leader and very brutal. War communism o To make sure the Red army had enough supplies and food during the civil war, Lenin extended state control over the economy. o He called this war communism. The state took control over the factories and seized surplus grain from the peasants - many peasants resisted, hiding the grain and then preferred to grow less rather than just give it away free. o The results were that grain production fell and then a drought in 1921 led to famine. More than 4million Russian starved to death. New Economic Policy (NEP) o State control of the economic imposed by war communism was relaxed. Smaller industries and factories returned to private ownership. o Production was then sold on the open market for profit (capitalist). o Grain was no longer seized from the peasants. Instead they had to give a fixed amount to the government in tax, keeping any surplus which could be sold on the open market at a profit. o Important industries such as coal, steel, railways and the banks remained under state control. ...read more.

Conclusion

* Lay down production plans- make so much in 5 years - Gosplan- state planning agency laid down production targets for a 5 year target. * Each individual had a target if not the person would be punished -beaten, financially * Terrorized people into doing what Stalin wants. Collectivization a communist method of farming where all resources are pooled and farms combined and all the labor is shared evenly. The farming was run under the NEP- some farmers had done well kulaks. * Simple and primitive * Mass production in farming as well as industry * Fierce resistance through Russia * 1930 -89million tones of grain 1934 - 69million tones of grain (agree or starve) * Had peasants exiled and killing 13million in total. To ensure power and terror How did his economic polices strengthen his position of dictator? He told people/industry how much to make and when for - 5year plan- and he enforced them because of terror he had 13million killed. How did propaganda and the "cult of Stalin" strengthen Stalin's position? Propaganda- is where certain media is used to misinform and influence people and what they thing about certain things. Cult of personality Hero worshiped of the leader of the country. Propaganda used to make people aware that Stalin was playing a part in every aspect in there lives. Message Stalin was looking after the people. (History was re-written to show Stalin as Lenin's most trusted adviser. Trotsky completely removed) ...read more.

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