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State the hostility between Austria-Hungary and Serbia between 1878 and 1914. How did this situation cause the outbreak of the First World War?

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History Essay (1) Christy Li F.5B (23) State the hostility between Austria-Hungary and Serbia between 1878 and 1914. How did this situation cause the outbreak of the First World War? The First World War took place in 1914-1918. The War broke out because of Sarajevo Incident 1914, in which Austria-Hungary and Serbia conflicted with each other. The incident sparked off the Austro-Serbian War in 1914, which soon turned from a local war to a global conflict, that is, the First World War. Obviously, the Austro-Serbian relation was a really significant factor contributing to the outbreak of the First World War. During the period of 1878 to 1914, hostility was built up between Austria-Hungary and Serbia mainly due to the following reasons: the Congress of Berlin, and the Pan-Slav Movement. The Congress of Berlin was the origin of Austro-Serbian hostility. The Congress of Berlin 1878 was brought about by the Eastern Question, which was about the decline of Ottoman Empire leading to the independence movements of the Serbs and Austrian ambitions of expanding to the Balkans. ...read more.


This angered Austria-Hungary, and further intensified the Austro-Serbian hostility. These two incidents were the main sources of Austro-Serbian hostility. They also brought about rivalries between Austria-Hungary and Serbia which contributed to the outbreak of the First World War: The Bosnia Crisis 1908, the Balkans War 1912-13, the Sarajevo Incident 1914 and the outbreak of the Austro-Serbian War 1914. The Bosnia Crisis was a clear example of rivalry between Austria-Hungary and Serbia. In the Congress of Berlin 1878, Austria-Hungary gained the administration of Bosnia-Herzegovina, which was still a part of the declining Ottoman Empire. However, Bosnia-Herzegovina, which was mainly populated by Slavs, wanted the rule of Serbia. Serbia wanted the Pan-Slav movement o unite with the Slavs. In 1908, Young Turks Revolution took place in Bosnia-Herzegovina; Austria-Hungary took advantage from the confusion to annex Bosnia-Herzegovina. Serbia then mobilized her troops against Austria-Hungary, and Russia supported her. Although at the end the Austrian annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina succeeded, the anti-Austrian feeling in Serbia ran high and lots of secret societies were formed. ...read more.


Since 1908, anti-Austrian feelings, plots and propaganda grew in Serbia and Bosnia. On June 28, 1914, Archduke Francis Ferdinand, the heir to the Austrian throne, and his wife, went on an official visit to Sarajevo, the Bosnia Capital. A Bosnian student, who was also a member of the Black Hand, assassinated them. Austria held Serbia responsible because Serbia supported the anti-Austrian activities. This event provided an excuse for Austria to crush Serbia who was her greatest enemy. The Austro-Serbia hostility reached the climax. The Sarajevo Incident sparked off the Austro-Serbian War 1914, which turned into the First World War. Austria, with the support of Germany sent an ultimatum with three demands to Serbia, who had got the Russian support, on 23 July 1914. Serbia accepted the first two demands but rejected the last one that mean loss of independence. On 28 July, Austria declared war on Serbia. The local war soon turned into a global conflict with the Russian, French, German and British entries into the War. To conclude, the hostility between Austria-Hungary and Serbia set off the Austro-Serbian War, which lead to the involvement of all other great European powers. The First World War thus began. ...read more.

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