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The Blitz 1940.

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The Blitz 1. In 1940, as an alternative to dropping its bombs on key military locations such as airfields and aerodromes, the German aeroplanes turned their concentration on London with a population of 9 million citizens. Hitler planned to invade Britain, and part of the reason for this was not only to destroy the key military strongholds/ basses, but the morale of the British populace. Before the Nazis could invade Britain they had to defeat the royal air force (RAF), otherwise British aeroplanes would bomb the German army as it sailed to Britain. So the Battle of Britain started. Through the long, hot summer days the British and Germans fought in the skies over Britain. This battle was vital. By early September, the British expected to be invaded any day. Both sides lost many planes and pilots, but the RAF was not defeated. The British command did not put all its aircraft into the fight at once, in case the Germans invaded, and this helped to keep planes working for the time when they were needed most. Hitler had to change his tactics. He thought that he could defeat the British morale by terrifying London. He set about ordering his planes to bomb London and the other major cities in Britain, which is why the major cities of Britain were bombed in 1940-41. An example of the major destruction in London was the bombing of the docks. ...read more.


But although many children had been evacuated in the early months of the war, the biggest movement of evacuees left London starting at 5.30am on the morning of 1st September 1940. Included in the evacuees were: children up to the age of fifteen, mothers, expectant mothers, elderly and frail people, hospital patients and blind people. The government devised a system where it was possible to apply for evacuation aid, and they made all the necessary arrangements regarding future accommodation and travel. But many decided they would make their own arrangements, in fact figures show that one and a half million took advantage of the governments idea, while two million made their own independent arrangements. Posters were to be seen all over London advising "Mothers, send them out of London" with a picture of helpless and desperate children looking up in bewilderment (propaganda). All major railway stations were choked to capacity as trains on altered timetables, plus additional trains that had been scheduled to move the great amount of children out of London. Even before the war had begun, the government had come up with a plan so that if it became necessary, a format where rationing had to be put into operation was at hand. Ration books in sufficient quantities for all the population were printed in 1937. This was known as 'The Food Defence Plans' Even though Britain is a large industrial and manufacturing country, it relies a lot on imports when it comes to food. ...read more.


Lord (Laurence) Oliviļæ½r acted, famously, in Henry v the reason this play of Shakespeare's was chosen was because of the renowned complimentary speech with the line: " Once more into the Breach my friends, once more" Posters were published in the thousands, from recruitment style in the 1st WW Lord Kitchener format to reminders of the need to keep secrets from the Germans - e.g. "keep mum, she's not so dumb". There were other styles of mind manipulation posters such as a pro-evacuation poster depicting lost or forlorn infants. Churchill's speeches were one of the most memorable aspects of the war as many of them were recorded. Churchill was an exceedingly excellent speechmaker who was able to find words to express the grief, triumph and determination of the nation to keep fighting against the odds and in spite of serious setbacks like Dunkirk. Without an inspirational leader like Churchill, England might not have had the courage to carry on fighting - a leader like Neville Chamberlain might have given in to the Germans, as many people wanted to do. Some politicians (e.g. Oswald Mosely) tried to set up a fascist party in England that was a copy of Hitler's and they had many followers. Churchill spoke out against such moves and warned against the dangers of German re-armament before the war started, although many people did not want to believe what he was saying. It was partly because Churchill was proved right about German intentions that he was elected Prime Minister when war broke out. ...read more.

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