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The Civil Rights Movement.

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Introduction

GCSE America The Civil Rights Movement The Campaign for Civil Rights in Education � The belief that all people regardless of skin color should have the right to a decent education. � 1n 1945 the two areas where segregation and racism was most obviously applied was in housing and education. � In the southern states the African Americans lived in the poorest areas with the worst facilities. � Without a good education no-one could advance themselves in society. � Therefore a poor education guaranteed a poor lifestyle for the African Americans. � Within the south the general philosophy was that an educated 'boy' could become a danger. There was also a belief that they were not intelligent enough deserve an education. 1896 Supreme Court: 'Separate but Equal' � This was a law that established that segregation was allowed in education but the provision for all students at schools and colleges of further education had to be the same. ...read more.

Middle

By 1938 he was the chief legal advisor to the NAACP. � Marshall led the campaign to make sure that the education of Black Americans was equal to that provided for Whites. As a consequence of his campaign the Supreme Court in June 1950 issued two orders: � Texas was forced to admit an African American student to a whites only law school � Oklahoma was banned from segregating facilities within its graduate school of education. � These decisions encouraged the NAACP to carry on fighting to end segregation in other states. The most famous of these cases was the Brown v the Board of Topeka case. The consequences of the Brown vs Topeka case. � The decision had an enormous impact on Americans. � For many people campaigning for civil rights the decision by the Supreme Court was wonderful news. ...read more.

Conclusion

� There was enormous resistance to the law in many states. Many states in the south refused to pay desegregate their schools. � In March 1956 22 southern Senators and 82 Representatives issued the Southern Manifesto which claimed that the Supreme Court had abused its judicial power and that they would do all they could to stop the forcible desegregation of schools in the south. � In some states such as Mississippi it gave an extra boost to those racially more extreme than others. Racial moderates gave way to these extremists determined to prevent black people gaining civil rights. � In some places 'White Citizens' Councils' were formed to resist integration. � The Ku Klux Klan also campaigned to prevent integration. They burnt houses and churches and committed many acts of violence against individuals. Their aim was to intimidate the African Americans to keep to their 'own' schools so that desegregation might exist on the statute book but not in actual reality. ...read more.

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