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The Cold War - major events. Revision notes.

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Introduction

* THE COLD WAR 1950-1975 o The superpowers regularly argued and criticized the actions of each other on UN assembly o They criticized each other through television, newspapers, art and films o Never came to war o Commonly sent troops to help other states to disrupt the aims and plans of their opponents o Anti-Communism in the USA * There was great dislike of communism in the USA - Senator Joseph McCarthy was one of the biggest opponents in USA and claimed that communist infiltrated American society -> he was the leader of this hunt * Case study : The Korean War * Communism was getting stronger around the world * In 1949, China as their mainstay in Far East became communist (They pumped 2 billion dollars to support Nationalist but it didn't help) * They had a feeling communist countries act together to spread communism * Stalin used cominform to communist to get power in Malaya, Indonesia, Burma, Korea, Philippines * South Korea invaded in 1950 - time for action!!! Background * Korea had been ruled by Japan until 1945 * After WW2, North became communist with one-single party ruled by Kim Il Sung and South remained non-communist and was ruled by Syngman Rhee * In 1950 their hostility spilled over into open warfare * By September 1950 North Korea overwhelmed whole South Korea except of small corner of south east. * President Truman immediately sends supplies to South Korea (warships, advisers) and also put an enormous pressure on UN security council to condemn the actions of NK and to withdraw their troops * USSR would normally use the right of VETO in UN council but when China became communist, USA blocked its entry to UN council since it regarded the nationalists as rightful government. -> USSR walked out from UN in protest -> didn't use VETO -> USA was the most powerful in influencing decisions * UN decided use member forces to get NK out of SK UNO or USA? ...read more.

Middle

* Second letter -: Khrushchev said that he removes the missiles from Cuba when USA withdraw its missiles in Turkey -> Kennedy didn't accept it * U-2 plane was shot down above Cuba, the pilot was killed -> Kennedy accepted the first letter not to attack Cuba Why did Soviet Union place nuclear missiles on Cuba? * It was very risky strategy - they had to know a respond to this will follow and they didnt even try to camouflaged the missiles 1) To bargain with USA - Khrushchev could use missiles on Cuba and them remove them for some American concession. 2) To trap the USA - He wanted from Americans to find them and start a nuclear war 3) To defend Cuba 4) To test the USA - to seem how strong americans were, whetever they woud faced up or give up 5) To get the upper hand in the arms race - Khrushchev knew that USSR was far apart from USA and wouldnt strike against USSR itself first if he would use missiles on Cuba against USA. The outcome * Cuba stayed communist and highly armed, missiles removed under UN supervision * Kennedy improved his reputation because he pushed back Soviet Union and Khrushchev made a triumph - Cuba remained usefull ally * Cuban crises improved the relationships - Both leaders knew that their conflict nearly ended in nuclear war - they were prepared to tak� steps to reduce this risk 1) Hot line phone link from White House to Kremlin was set up * They signed a nuclear test ban treaty in 1963 - limited test with bombs * Case study 3 : the Vietnam War 1946 - 1954 The origins of the conflict * Vietnam had been ruled by France - called Indochina * First major blow was in 1940 -> Japanese (Germanys ally) after WW2 took control over main resources in Vietnam such as coil, rice, rubber, roads, railways. ...read more.

Conclusion

and asking Congress to investigate it -> Magazine LIFE published photographs from massacre ->Calley, an officer of Charlie Company, was charged with murdering 109 people -> other members charged too-> after long court Calley was found guilty -> public was shocked and knew that the war went wrong -> 700000 protestants in Washington Ending the war in Vietnam * After the Tet offensive Johnson knew the war cant be win militarily -> he decreased the bombing and instructed his officials to prepare peace conference * In March 1968 a peace conference began in Paris -> In November 1968 new president was elected, Richard Nixon, and he worked hard to end USA involvement in Vietnam -> but they didn't want simply give Vietnam to communists * In January 1973 Le Duc Tho, Nixon, and south Vietnamese President signed a peace treaty The fall of South Vietnam 1973-75 * Within 2 years south Vietnam became communist -> Nixon promised not to stop support Vietnam militarily and financially but congress didn't allow this -> evidence : SV regime was corrupt and lacked peoples support * Without US support, air power, SV govt. couldn't survive and fallen to communists forces after launching in 1975 How did the Vietnam War affect the policy of containment? * Policy of containment was in tatters (na cucky) -> 1) even USA military strength couldn't stop spread of communism -> 2) it failed also politically -> Because of the bombing of Laos and Cambodia helped communists to gain support and became communist in 1975 -> Americans didn't slow down the domino effect but speeded up 3) Also a propaganda disaster -> using chemical weapons damaged USA's reputation and lost support of its own people * After the war Americans tried to improve relationships with China and ended block on Chinas membership of UN -> in 1970s Soviet Union and USA cooperated much better and USA became suspicious about involving themselves into other conflict. ?? ?? ?? ?? 1 ...read more.

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