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The Crimean War

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THE CRIMEAN WAR * Also known as the Eastern War * March 1854-February 1856 * Fought between the Russian Empire on one side and France, the United Kingdom, the Kingdom of Sardinia and the Ottoman Empire on the other. It was the first time that Britain and France were on the same side. The Austro-Hungarian Empire was called upon by both sides to help but decided to remain neutral, not wanting to damage their international relations. * The Crimean War was the first war involving European nations since 1815 when the aim of the peacekeepers at the Congress of Vienna was to maintain peace for at least 15 years. * The main reason for the conflict was the collision of colonial interests between Russia and Turkey. Both countries wanted control over the Holy Land. * On 23rd of October 1853 Turkey declared war on Russia. Britain and France joined the war in March 1854 and Sardinia joined in January 1855. ...read more.


The change of important politicians in Europe also contributed greatly to the build-up of the Crimean War. This was because of the 1948 revolutions. It meant that there were many new men in office in most European nations. Napoleon III became Emperor of France. He wanted glory and had great ambitions. The French wanted expansion to uphold the name 'Second Empire' so Napoleon was looking for achievements. There was also instability in Britain as the state of British politics was poor at this time. In the 1840s the Prime Minister gave Czar Nicholas I of Russia the impression that Britain would not go to war over Turkish territory. The relationship between Czar Nicholas and Napoleon was hostile for several reasons. Napoleon I had invaded Russia in 1812 which made France unpopular in Russia. The Czar saw Napoleon as a usurper and not a legitimate ruler and likened him to the Liberal Nationalists in 1848 that caused trouble in Russia. ...read more.


In January 1954 British and French fleets arrived in the black Sea and Britain and France declared war on Russia almost simultaneously in March. OUTCOME Russia fared well against its weaker neighbour to the south, destroying the Turkish fleet off the coast of Sinope, a port city in north-central Asia Minor. However, in September 1854, the British and French laid siege to Sevastopol, Russia's heavily fortified chief naval base in the Black Sea, lying on the Crimean peninsula. After just under one year of constant battle, the Russian abandoned the fortress, blowing up their fortifications and sinking their own ships. Meanwhile, at nearby Balaklava, British troops charged down a narrow valley that was flanked by Russian guns on both sides. Nearly every British soldier fell dead in what came to be called the Valley of Death. Russia's new tsar, Alexander II, sued for peace in 1856. In the resulting Peace of Paris, Russia relinquished its claim as Christian protector in Turkey, the Black Sea was neutralized, and the balance of power was maintained. ?? ?? ?? ?? Kate Manson ...read more.

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