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The Duvalier regime compared to other dictatorships on Haiti during the middle of the 20th century

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Extended Essay History By Geir Espen Aas May 2003 The Duvalier regime compared to other dictatorships on Haiti during the middle of the 20th century 3874 words Abstract This essay tells the history of Haiti from its independence in 1804 to the end of the Duvalier regime in 1986 with special focuse on the regimes of Francois Duvalier and his son Jean-Claude Duvalier who ruled Haiti from September 22nd 1957 to February 6th 1986. This is quite a feat considering that the average ruling time of a Haitian presidentwas less than 3 years up to then. Francois Duvalier and Jean-Claude Duvalier are compared to other Haitian rulers in the 20th century to determine the causes of their success. The conclusion is that Francois Duvalier's secret police, his creation of a new elite, his manipulation through religion and his control over the Haitian army were decisive factors for the Duvalier regime. Context Page * The history of Haiti * Duamarsais Estim�'s regime * Paul Magloire's regime * The Duvalier election * Papa Doc's regime * The Domestic policy * The Voodoo policy * The foreign policy * Assassination attempts * Economic situation * Baby Doc's regime * Baby Doc's policy * The end of the Duvalier regime * Conclusion The Duvalier regime compared to other dictatorships on Haiti in the 20th century During its time as an independent nation from January 1 1804 to 1957 when Francois Duvalier took the power, Haiti was ruled by over 45 different men. The longest constant regimes were the ones of Jean-Pierre Boyer from 1818 to 1843 and USA who invaded Haiti in 1915 with Woodrow Wilson and didn't leave until 1934.1 Excluding Boyer and the American presidents the average ruling time for a Haitian president was approximately 2 years, and every regime ended in assassinations, coups or exiles. From 1911 to 1915 as much as six different Haitian presidents were overthrown or killed by the angry mobs. ...read more.


They'd been supporting any Haitian ruler since they left in 1939, and were especially thrilled to see a stabile one like Papa Doc. The Voodoo politics Perhaps the most amazing thing about Duvalier in the eyes of the western population was his manipulation of the Haitian masses through voodoo whom the average Haitian at the time firmly believed in.36 Duvalier studied voodoo and voodoo believes, he was even rumored to be a houngan (voodoo priest). He changed the color of the flag from blue and red to black and red (the color of secret voodoo societies), ran a graffiti campaign saying "Duvalier is God", enlarged his network of Tonton Macoutes by incorporating houngans and bok�s (voodoo sorcerers), and promoted a well known houngan as his new military leader.37 Duvalier became popular among people as he reached out to them through their religion, in addition rumors of his magic and sorcery was wide spread. He dressed up like the chief Iwa of the Cemetery, Baron Samedi, and some people even believed he was an avatar (the descent to earth of a god or some exhalted being)38. His clothing was a black top hat, black coat tails, sunglasses, and cigars. When he said "They can't get me, I am immaterial." He didn't declare his irrelevance, but his divinity.39 In voodoo believes, you have to hold a cow leg in your hand as you summon Baron Samedi, because when he leaves again he'll take with him whatever he's holding, and if you hold a cow leg you get to keep your arm.40 People simply didn't dare challenge a man with such dark magic. In 1961 Duvalier held a new election to extend his position to 1967, he won 1,320,487 votes to 041. In May 1959 Duvalier suffers a heart attack, and his most trusted associate Clement Barbot steps up to take control over the country, when Duvalier recovers Barbot is put into prison.42 A group of Cuban guerillas and Haitian exiles lands on the south tip of the island in an attempt to remove Duvalier. ...read more.


Both Magloire and Papa Doc attempted to become dictators for life, however Magloire was stopped by protests from intellectuals backed up by workers in Port-au-Prince. His policy of allowing workers to organize into unions backfired at him as this made them organized, and capable of striking. The terror of Papa Doc's TonTon Macoutes prevented such organizations from acting. Works sited Farmer, Paul "Uses of Haiti" 1994 Dayan, John "Haiti, History and the Gods" 1995 Goldish, Meish "Crisis in Haiti" 1994 Aschough & Gyldendals Store Norske Leksikon G-Hom 1979 http://haiti.uhhp.com/important_dates/important_dates14.html http://www.1upinfo.com/country-guide-study/haiti/haiti24.html http://www.1upinfo.com/country-guide-study/haiti/haiti25.html http://www.1upinfo.com/country-guide-study/haiti/haiti26.html http://www.webster.edu/~corbetre/haiti/history/duvaliers/overthrow.htm http://eserver.org/bs/30/hawkes.html http://www.moreorless.au.com/killers/duvalier.htm Diverse e-mails from Bob Corbette's Haitian e-mail list "http://www.webster.edu/~corbetre/haiti/library/mailing.htm" 1 Goldish, Meish Crisis in Haiti p.20 2 Ibid p.25 3 Ibid p.16 4 Ibid p.17 5 http://www.webster.edu/~corbetre/haiti/history/revolution/revolution2.htm Toussaint's rise to power and the end of foreign occupation 6 http://www.webster.edu/~corbetre/haiti/history/revolution/revolution4.htm 7 Ibid 8 Goldish, Meiss Haiti in Crisis p.19 9 Ibid p. 20 10 Ibid p.21 11 Ibid p.21 12 Ibid p.21 13 http://www.1upinfo.com/country-guide-study/haiti/haiti24.html 14 Ibid 15 Goldish, Meish Crisis in Haiti p.22 16 http://www.1upinfo.com/country-guide-study/haiti/haiti24.html 17 Ibid 18 Ibid 19 Ibid 20 Ibid 21 Ibid 22 Ibid 23 Ibid 24 Ibid 25 Farmer, Paul Uses of Haiti p.107 26 Goldish, Meier Crisis in Haiti p.25 27 Aschough & Gyldendals Store Norske Leksikon G-Hom p.427 28 http://www.webster.edu/~corbetre/haiti/history/duvaliers/overthrow.htm 29 Goldish, Meish Crisis in Haiti p.26 30 Ibid p.26 31 Ibid p.26 32 http://www.moreorless.au.com/killers/duvalier.htm 33 http://www.1upinfo.com/country-guide-study/haiti/haiti25.html 34 Ibid 35 Ibid 36 http://eserver.org/bs/30/hawkes.html 37 Ibid 38 Dayan, John Haiti, History and Gods p.126 39 http://eserver.org/bs/30/hawkes.html 40 http://www.geocities.com/BourbonStreet/6157/BaronSamedi.html 41 http://www.1upinfo.com/country-guide-study/haiti/haiti25.html 42 http://www.webster.edu/~corbetre/haiti/history/duvaliers/overthrow.htm 43 Ibid 44 http://www.1upinfo.com/country-guide-study/haiti/haiti25.html 45 Ibid 46 Ibid 47 http://www.webster.edu/~corbetre/haiti/history/duvaliers/overthrow.htm 48 Ibid 49 Ibid 50 Ibid 51 Ibid 52 Ibid 53 Aschough & Gyldendals Store Norske Leksikon G-Hom p.427 54 http://www.1upinfo.com/country-guide-study/haiti/haiti25.html 55 Ibid 56 Goldish, Meish Crisis in Haiti p.28 57 http://www.1upinfo.com/country-guide-study/haiti/haiti26.html 58 Ibid 59 Goldish, Meish Crisis in Haiti p.29 60 http://www.1upinfo.com/country-guide-study/haiti/haiti26.html 61 Ibid 62 Ibid 63 Ibid 64 Ibid 65 Goldish, Meish Crisis in Haiti p.29-30 66 http://haiti.uhhp.com/important_dates/important_dates14.html 67 http://www.1upinfo.com/country-guide-study/haiti/haiti26.html 1 ...read more.

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