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The main features of The New Deal introduced by Franklin D. Roosevelt.

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Introduction

The New Deal (a) The main features of The New Deal introduced by Franklin D. Roosevelt were: The Emergency Banking Act passed on 9th March 1933 This dealt with the country's banking crisis. There had been a crash in the financial sector called 'The Wall Street Crash' in 1929 which caused a fifth of all banks to go out of business and millions of people lost their savings. People had therefore lost faith in the banking system and were withdrawing their money and keeping it at home. The Emergency Banking Act guaranteed that savers would not lose their money if there was another financial crisis. A Federal Deposit Corporation was set up to insure peoples' savings. It also forbade the banks to use investors' money to trade on the Stock Exchange. The Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA) This was implemented to reduce the misery for those who were unable to work. It was given $500,000,000 to help with cash relief for the poor providing soup kitchens, employment and nursery schools amongst other things. Roosevelt said that unemployment could only be solved "by direct recruiting by the Government itself". The Economy Act This reduced wages of state employees. It also reduced pensions. This was to take into account the fall in prices and difference in cost of living. Projects were introduced to carry out certain tasks: Works Projects Administration (WPA) When Roosevelt became president he put his friend, Harry Hopkins, in charge of the Works Projects Administration (WPA). ...read more.

Middle

The AAA asked the farmers to cut production in order to strengthen the economy. The farmers who agreed to do this received a subsidy from the government who got this money from new taxes. (b) Roosevelt introduced the New Deal for the following reasons: It was intended to help solve the problems caused by the Depression. When he was nominated as the presidential candidate for the Democratic Party he said to the American people "I pledge you, I pledge myself, to a new deal for the American people". During the Wall Street Crash of October 1929 15% of peoples' life savings were lost. Many banks went out of business which had a knock-on effect of causing companies to close and working people to be unemployed. These were problems that had to be dealt with by The President and Roosevelt used the New Deal to look at all aspects of the problems caused by the Crash and the subsequent Depression. Roosevelt simplified the problems by splitting them in two. These show the main reasons for introducing the New Deal. He outlined them in a speech in Boston in 1932: "We have two problems: first, to meet the immediate distress; second, to build up on a basis of permanent employment. As to immediate relief, the first principle is that this nation, this national government, if you like, owes a positive duty that no citizen shall be permitted to starve. In addition to providing emergency relief, the Federal Government should and must provide temporary work wherever that is possible. ...read more.

Conclusion

I think the fact that the farmers were used to controlling their own farms made them resent being controlled. They were also asked to reduce production and work as a group. This was, in my opinion, not as successful as other aspects of the New Deal. The farmers were isolated as they were blamed by the general population for an increase in prices due to the reduced amount of produce on the market. The CCC was not, I feel, as successful as it was meant to be. Frances Perkins, Secretary for Labour in Roosevelt's administration wrote a book called 'The Roosevelt I knew' in 1946. She talked about the CCC and conversations she had with Roosevelt in 1933 "His enthusiasm for this project, which was really all his own, led him to some exaggeration of what could be accomplished. He saw it big. He thought any man or boy would rejoice to leave the city and work in the woods." This was idealistic and was bound to fail. She went on to describe other parts of the New Deal which show it was not a complete success: "And there were some difficult details. The attitude of the trade unions had to be considered. They were disturbed about this program ..." I think this is a more accurate idea of the New Deal's success in this area. All the above support my view that 'The New Deal was not a complete success'. I agree that it did not solve everything that was wrong in America at the time. However I believe that the New Deal went a long way towards trying to do this. ...read more.

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