• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
  5. 5
  6. 6
  7. 7
  8. 8
  9. 9
  10. 10

The Nationalist Option And Its Consequences on the Movement Towards Equality.

Extracts from this document...


Rising out of slavery and reconstruction were questions of the capacity of blacks for education, citizenship, and leadership. Black leaders and writers came up with separate sollutions to answer these questions, ultimatly seeking the same outcome of equality for African American people in the United States. These separate sollutions were a "dialectical struggle" within the black community between the opposing forces of black nationalists such as Booker T. Washington, and integrationalists such as W.E.B. DuBois. Commentaries on the meaning of racial uplift and the role of black leadership in pursuing it were often shaded by social Darwinian conceptions of racial struggle, specifically, the view that "two distinct races on the same land mass could never coexist, as the dominant race would inevitably annihilate the subordinated one" (Gaines, 1996, p. 36). Out of these conceptions, the nationalist option was born, which stressed that the way to achieve equality for black people in America was to either organize around their own cultural ancestry and formulate a government that would offer equality or to the acquisition of industrial training and uplift through education. This opposed the integrationalist option, which stressed upward mobility through the pursuit of higher education and direct political involvment. Both options maintained that the ulimate goal was for blacks to obtain equality. However, the nationalist option proves less effective than the integrationalist option because it consequently yeilds to less equality between blacks and whites, by calling on the black community to limit themselves to industrial skills and to abstain from politics. ...read more.


56). Although the UNIA's long-range goal was a massive back-to-Africa emigration, Garvey also called on his followers, who were predominantly poor, uneducated urban blacks, to pool their resources in great commercial and industrial enterprises. For various reasons, however, Garvey's organization began to rapidly decline in 1922 (Avery, 1989, p. 54). Although other philosophies prevailed, including the coutering integrationalist option and the idea of non-violent resistence headed by Martin Luther King, Jr, the reasoned doctrine tied to the nationalist option did not fully dissipate. The nationalist option continued to be an influential doctrine, however it is the non-violent resistence philosophy that prevails in historical references to the civil rights movement. This is mainly because the nationalist option could never gain the type of equailty that is ultimatly sought among black leaders and the black community in the United States today. For instance, in order for great change to occur, the government needs to act. Without government enforcemnet of laws regarding segregation or voting rights, blacks will forever be placed in a subordinate position because of the prevelance of racism within the United States. Booker T. Washington had often proclaimed, in accordance with northern white philanthropists, religious and civic leaders, and southern politicians and planter elites, that blacks forsake politics for an indefinite period of time (Gaines, 1996, p.39). He discredidted the political and educational gains of Reconstruction as "mistakes," their reforms "artificial and forced." ...read more.


This, of course, would be the white elitists of the time. Garvey and Washington both realized the implications of having white supporters. Through their support it would be easier to obtain public forums and gain greater influence. However, because of the capitalist based white system under which America flouished, leaders were forced to formulate ideals that would captivate both the white and black community. The nationalist option did just that, because it claimed that blacks could become self-sufficient and in a sense "equal," while still promising whites that blacks would never gain too much complete power or control. The main source of change comes through government intervention, which ultimatly is achieved through political action as a necessary means to accomplish the goal of equality. Since the fountain head of the nationalist option stems from the ideas of Booker T. Washington and Marcus Garvery who objected to black political involvment, it is clear that the nationalist option could never succeed. Simply avoiding the problem by leaving the country and its social stratifications behind, or accepting a subordinate position in society does not produce equality among blacks and whites. The nationalist option yeilds to the capitalist system of America, which leaves room for advancment, but not complete and utter equality. By joining forces with racist Southern elites and the Klu Klux Klan, leaders counter-act advancment efforts by complying with groups that seek to push blacks down to a level of subordination. The Nationalist Option And Its Consequences on the Movement Towards Equality Jeannie Herbst 6151765 Black Studies 6 May 23, 2003 1 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE USA 1941-80 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE USA 1941-80 essays

  1. One problem leading to Blacks fighting for their Civil Rights was the unjust Jim ...

    of America In conclusion I believe that blacks fought for their civil rights for several reasons. I feel it was the right choice to fight for there civil rights in the 1950's. Furthermore all the events blacks have had to deal with are horrific and unnecessary by the white community of America.

  2. Civil rights movement - questions and answers.

    In 1954 there was a particular issue about a young girl called 'Linda Brown' and whether or not she was allowed to attend a local 'all white' school. Although the local public school was just one block away but Linda found herself walking twenty blocks to a school that allowed black children to attend.

  1. South Africa and Apartheid: Have the effects of apartheid disappeared?

    He says: "(murderers) rarely get even a paragraph in the Johannesburg newspapers, which prefer to focus on stories about whites being shot by black gangs." This shows that South African newspapers can be biased. Source q is very recent and reliable because it is from 1999 and is from a The Observer, which is a broadsheet newspaper.

  2. Booker T. Washington vs. W.E.B. Dubois

    Subsequently, Dubois seems to argue more towards fighting for cultural equality now, and claiming the long overdue African American rights that had been denied to the black community for so long. As argued in the Niagara Movement, Dubois felt that African Americans were being wronged via the governments denying the

  1. "Religion's are notorious for promoting Racial Segregation". Discuss with reference to one specific historical ...

    They did not want the afircans to advance, gainging equal edications, increasing African wages and increaing he pirce of goods. The europenas wanted to keep their life of aristocracy and did this through Apartheid. This form of racial segreation, at this point appeared to have no promotion from religion, but purely caused by economic, political and social factors.

  2. The scope of this investigation is to discover the Rastafari movement mainly by considering ...

    To be classified as founder is Marcus Mosiah Garvey (1887-1940). The key event leading to the movement was the coronation of Ras Tafari Makonnen to Emperor Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia (1930), the only country which never has been colonized in Africa.

  1. A discussion of the key features, opposition and consequences of McCarthyism

    Army General, which accentuated his offensive comportment McCarthyism opposition One reason for the ignominy of his reputation was due to his intimidating and abusive temperament towards any element of antagonism to his ideology.

  2. The art of persuasion.

    I have a dream that one day on the red hills... I have a dream that one day even the state... I have a dream that my four little children... I have a dream today... I have a dream that one day the state" The repetition lasted throughout most of

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work