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The Sumerian civilization began upon the flood plain of the lower parts of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers because the rivers were close to the land it was fertile and enabled the people to grow food.

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Introduction

TFA 1121 ASSIGNMENT 1 HISTORY AND THEORY Civilization defines an advance state of intellectual, cultural, and material development in human society. Sumer which was a country in Southern Mesopotamia was the source of first civilization. The Sumerian civilization began upon the flood plain of the lower parts of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers because the rivers were close to the land it was fertile and enabled the people to grow food. With the excess of food people could settle down to village life and with these new settlements towns and cities were created. The creation of towns and cities and with the surplus of food the population was allowed to grow. Agriculture was an important factor for civilization in Sumer. The Sumerian people grew different types of foods. They farmed everything from wheat to onions, they could create dykes and canals, they had cattle to loosen the soil and ease the workload off them, and with the creation of there calendar system it helped them knowing when to start harvesting. ...read more.

Middle

"The Sumerian language became the main speech of the land, and the people developed the cuneiform script, a system of writing on clay. This script was to become the basic means of written communication throughout Mesopotamia. In the centuries that followed the immigration of the Sumerians, the country grew rich and powerful. Art and architecture, crafts, and religious and ethical thought flourished." There were many achievements of civilization in southern Mesopotamia. Agriculture became the main method of subsistence; farming was made easier from the introduction of the plough. The invention of the wheel made pottery. The construction and careful planning of the epic buildings such as the temples and ziggurats. But the main achievement is of the civilisation was the invention of there system of writing which was known as cuneiform. A courtyard house is type of house where the main part of the building is set around a central courtyard that is open to the sky. ...read more.

Conclusion

One of the main features of the courtyard house is the vaulted hall known as the Iwan. This is a spacious covered space, closed on three sides and generally extended up through two floors. It's a large semi outside room facing opening into the middle of the courtyard. The courtyard is a circulation for climate as well as an adaptable space for different functions for instance entertaining guests and family gatherings. The court space offers the chance for family to create a quiet private area uniquely established with the family and its Middle Eastern culture. It allows a safe area for children play under parent's supervision, a calm place to sleep during the hot summer nights, a foundation for daylight for the surrounding rooms and a circulation core of the house linking all the rooms in a controlled manner. But there are disadvantages of the courtyard structure, there are problems of drainage. Drainage was a well know problem for the courtyard design and when there was heavy rainfall it had to be tolerated by the residents. Reference http://history-world.org/sumeria.htm ?? ?? ?? ?? Murat keles ...read more.

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