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The Unification of Italy.

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UNIFICATION OF ITALY Mikel Valdes 21/02/03 Italy is a country which was formed less than 150 years ago. Until then, it had been a territory divided into diverse areas dominated all by different rulers, in addition to having dissimilar traditions. All this changed once a nationalist movement started to develop throughout the peninsula, led by different people. After Napoleon I gave Italy a similitude of unity, the Congress of Vienna (1815) divided the Italian territory into a number of states, as well as taking part of it to be offered to Austria. Either monarchs or the Austrian power ruled these several regions. Even though they still spoke the same language, the different states did not attempt to unify. ...read more.


Cavour admired the British government system, and wanted to unite Italy as well as industrialize the nation under his leadership. Cavour enhanced the army, as well as setting up banks, factories, railroads, recovering trade and strengthening the shipbuilding industry. He also granted religious freedom to the state of Sardinia. Cavour organized an alliance with France to make Austria release the Italian states it had under its power. Napoleon III and Cavour agreed to make Austria declare war on Sardinia in order to make the French drive the Austrians out of Lombardy and Venetia. In return, Sardinia would give Nice and Savoy back to France. Since Napoleon III feared that the other Italian states would want to annex with Sardinia and increase its power, he signed a treaty with Austria, which stated that Sardinia would receive Lombardy but Austria kept Venetia. ...read more.


In the end, Cavour influenced Garibaldi to set up the Kingdom of Italy ruled by Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia. After having the citizens vote for unification, Victor Emmanuel II was confirmed to become the first King of Italy. This new nation contained all of Italy except for Venetia and the western part of the Papal States. The first area was still being ruled by Austria, while the second one belonged to the Pope. Italy was almost totally united after Venetia was seized in the Seven Weeks' War (1866). While the Franco-Prussian war was being fought (1870), Napoleon III recalled his troops avoiding Rome from uniting Italy, which let the Italians free way to enter the city and proclaiming it the capital of the kingdom that same year. ...read more.

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