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The Vienna Settlement

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The Vienna Settlement was embodied in four different yet interlocked arrangements: the Treaty of Chaumont, the two Treaties of Paris, the Treaty of Vienna and the Quadruple Alliance. The Settlement aimed to prevent further aggression from France, eliminate the revolutionaries, redraw the map of Europe, maintain peace and an effective alliance of the four Great Powers. These aims were achieved through the Principles of Legitamacy and Balance of Power. Despite the mutual jealosy of the Great Powers, the Settlement helped prevent major wars in Europe for 40 years. To a certain extent, some of the aims were achieved wisely in accordance to the principles aforementioned. The determination to prevent further aggression from France was made possible by the creation of buffer states around France. For instance, Belgium and Holland were united in the Kingdom of the Netherlands on the north-eastern frontier of France, Genoa was added to Piedmont Sardinia, and Prussia was strengthened because of the acquisition of territories along the Rhine. These measures were adopted in the hope of containing France. ...read more.


The great powers agreed to mean at fixed periods in order to promote their common interets and discuss any important matters affecting Europe. A new idea of co-operation was put forward as a consequence, this system of internatinal diplomacy lasted throughout the 19th century and beyond. In addition to this, legitimate rulers were restored to their thrones. The restored rulers included King Louis XVIII to Francem King Victor Emmanuel I to Pedmont-Sardinia and King Ferdinand I to Naples. They were relied upon to stamp out revolutionary movements and uproot liberalism and nationalism. There are some drawbacks, however. One of which is that revolutions against the restored rulers and foreign domination broke out. The conservative Eastern Powers (Prussia, Austria and Russia) were eager to put down these revolutionos. The two liberal powers (ie. Britain and France) were opposed to this on grounds of ideological differences and economic interests. It can be seen in the Congress of Verona which Britain only sent representatives to attend. ...read more.


Similiar actions were taken on Denmark as mentioned above (cession of Norway to Sweden). As to other states, they were subject to alien rule in view of the principle of balance of power and defensive arrangement against France. For example, Austria gained Lombardy and Venetia, Piedmont gained Genoa and Russia gained Poland. Thus, the fate of these small states was determined by the Great Powers. In conclusion, some of the chief objectives of the Vienna Settlement were achieved by peaceful means. In a sense, the creation of buffer states played a key role in containing France, however, it did not help much in checking the spread of revolutionary ideas. As division among the powers grew, the Alliance system gradually fell apart. Neither a perpetual Congress system nor eternal peace was achieved. The Settlement was moderate or even lenient to some countries while extreme to others due to the fact that small states did not have a say. Despite efforts made by the brilliant statesmen, problems still emerged as time went by. So, wise is just too big a word to describe the Settlement. ...read more.

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