• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

To what extent in the period 1906-1914 did the Russian Monarchy succeed in removing the primary causes of internal tension and create a wider base of support?

Extracts from this document...


October 2004 Joanna Vickers L66 To what extent in the period 1906-1914 did the Russian Monarchy succeed in removing the primary causes of internal tension and create a wider base of support? After the 1905 revolution, Tsar Nicholas was able to maintain his autocratic rule through a variety of schemes for reform and repression. However, in his attempts to remove the primary causes of the internal tension in Russia, and create a wider base of support, he was largely unsuccessful. The underlying problems were the backwardness of agriculture and industry, the unwavering autocratic regime and the resentment harboured by national minorities. These problems were the primary causes of internal tension, which consisted of the agrarian inefficiency and land hunger in the countryside, the bitter and disaffected workers in the towns, and those politicised workers and gentry who wanted greater representation and power in the government. Although there was rapid industrialisation, the introduction of the Duma and various social reforms, Russia only experienced shallow and brief recovery. This became clear in 1910-1914, and demonstrated the Russian monarchy's overall failure in its aims, and WW1 became the final push for a regime that was already on the brink of collapse. The Tsar agreed to the October Manifesto as a token gesture at political appeasement. ...read more.


However, there is debate over how successful these reforms were. Stolypin made the mistake of assuming that the peasants had a western-style desire for personal property, and that it was the Mir which caused poverty. Unfortunately, the strong communal tradition was ignored, and the conservatism of the peasants meant that the land reforms were not welcomed by all. A Land Bank was set up to provide loans with which to buy land, and there was also mass voluntary relocation to areas such as Siberia in order to put these empty lands into agricultural use. Although there are figures which suggest that these reforms were a success; between 1907-1916, 20% of peasants left the commune and by 1913, 5 million households moved eastwards. However, productivity rose by only 1% per annum, and most land remained in the ancient strip system. Due to these conflicting statistics, it is difficult to come to a definite conclusion about the success of the land reforms. Altogether, it seems that the reforms seemed to be failing before 1914, due to the new problems of jealousy and vicious attacks on those who chose to leave the Mir and the lack of motivation for change amongst the peasant masses. ...read more.


This sent a mixed message to the Russian people, as it was clear that the Tsar and his government were not willing to comply with the 1905 reform ideas, nor were they willing to relax the harsh regime of oppression. This would clearly not have gained the Tsar popularity. Therefore the Tsar was mainly unsuccessful in his social reforms which were designed for appeasement, not the repression that followed. The fact that the Tsar allowed the aggressive nationalism to grow in Russia demonstrates his ineptitude, as the government's apathetic attitude towards the numerous pogroms and, once again, the retraction of the 1905 concessions to minorities such as the Finns meant that the revolutionary parties grew within these groups, increasing opposition to the Tsar and his autocratic regime. From this evidence it can be deduced that the Russian Monarchy was unsuccessful in its attempt to remove the primary causes of internal tension and gain a wider base of support. Although there were attempts to correct Russia's main problems, such as the industrialisation and land reforms, these did not have the required success that was needed to adequately modernize Russia. The attempts to gain support were equally unsuccessful; the Tsar sent contrasting messages in his withdrawal of the concessions made in 1905 which frustrated his people, and the repression of the workers and minority groups fuelled opposition. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Russia, USSR 1905-1941 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Russia, USSR 1905-1941 essays

  1. to what extent was russia stable between 1906 and 1914?

    However, it did have some affects regarding the aim of the regime. The number of Kadets seats was halved. However the SD's and SR's benefited quite substantially gaining 188 deputies. However, by the third Duma June 1907-1912, the Tsar wanted to rid of the regime in hopes to make Russia a democratic nation, relying on the vote of upper classes.

  2. What were the strengths and weaknesses of the Russian monarchy in 1894?

    More opposition groups approached the Tsar, seeking political, economic and social changes throughout the country. Many people believed that Nicholas II was a weak and indecisive leader. However, throughout his reign, he dismissed many important calls for reform, showing his real power.

  1. To what extent in the period 1906-1914 did the Russian monarchy succeed in removing ...

    had promised; this resulted in the purchasing power of the peasants to rise by 15% due to the increase of disposable income. Between 1909 and 1914, there was a vast movement of peasants away from the communes due to the repeal of the redemption payments and the loans available for the peasants from the 'land bank'.

  2. How Successful Was Roosevelt’s New Deal?

    IT was difficult to states to co-operate and the Tennessee Valley was too large for one single state to handle. To combat this problem, Franklin D. Roosevelt set up the TVA, which could cut across the powers of local governments.

  1. Explain Why Women Failed To Gain The Right To Vote Between 1900 and 1914

    It was thought that women who have the vote will want careers next and they might even consider neglecting their families. Britain felt that the votes were not very important as they had other issues to deal with, for example Ireland and strikes throughout the country.

  2. Was life improving for the Russian people before 1914

    Along the way there were many Dumas and hardly any of them worked out and if anything made life worse for Russian people, but they were a step towards a perfect Duma and were better off with little power than before than with none.

  1. How successfully did the Tsarist regime deal with the problems of Agriculture between 1856 ...

    That initial stage dragged on for nearly 20 years in some regions. In many areas the peasants had to pay more than the land was worth. While in other areas they were given small plots, and many chose to accept "beggarly allotments".

  2. How far may the period 1880-1914 be regarded as "wasted years" in the solution ...

    Stolypin's reforms was the most important attempt of Tsarism after 1881 to initiate social reform. I think it is typical in that the possible reforms would have had gainers and losers. Stolypin's reforms were labeled "The wager on the strong".

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work