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Tsar's Russia & revolution, Hitler's rise to power revison notes.

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The Tsarist Regime Very unpopular because: * Many thought it was an outdated leadership; he was an absolute ruler with no government. * The country was mostly peasants (75%) yet the noble class owned the country's wealth. * Bad working conditions for workers in towns. Most peasants went into to towns and this caused crowding. * Russia had lost a war with Japan in 1905 - Tsar Nicolas started the war to gain support again but he lost which made Russia look weak * Mirs - were local councils which interfered with peasant affairs and could decide whether a peasant was allowed to buy land or not. * It seemed to be influenced by a holy man called Rasputin The Tsar set up a government because of all the demos and protests - bloody Sunday was almost a full scale revolution. Duma was the government that he set up. He dismissed it the first time because he thought they were demanding too much. He set up another one and then he dismissed it again because he thought some SLDP members were terrorists and the Duma wouldn't allow him to arrest them. SLDP - Social Democratic Labour Party Prime Minster Stolypin set up Kulaks (peasant bank) to help peasants buy land without having to use Mirs. Many resented those with access to Kulaks as they still had to use the less efficient Mirs. The Tsar decided to join world war one. The loyalty and and patriotism grew because of this. However by the end it made everyone dislike him more because: * 1.7 million soldiers were dead; many though this was because they were badly equipped and badly led. * They had lost land to the Germans * Because of all the money going toward the war; it caused more starvation and inflation quadrupled. The war speeded up the process of change. People had had enough. ...read more.


Hindenburg didn't give into Hitler and offered the job to Von Papen again. Hitler could have been vice-chancellor but he declined and waited for the next elections. Von Papen failed again and another election was held and the Nazis had lost 34 seats. People thought they were losing support. Hindenburg appointed von Schlinder to the post of chancellor and tried to make the Nazis weak by asking a leading Nazi to become vice but Hitler made him decline. In January 1933, Hindenburg gave and offered the chancellor position to him. Hitler called another election in March. He did gain seats but he still didn't have a majority. They did well in 1933 because: * They controlled media * SA terrorised opponents * Richstag fire * Opposition meetings were banned * Communists arrested so people couldn't vote for them. The fire - he quickly stated it that it was a communist and he got the party banned. Communists = illegal. Enabling Law - passed by Richestag. Meant that Hitler could make his own laws. All other parties were now illegal. Night of the Long Knives: Hitler had opposition from the SA - 400,000 men - leader = Ernst Rohm. Rohm thought that the SA should take over the army and the Nazi should be under their influence (socialist). Hitler didn't want to lose support from the business men and army so he sent his SS (storm troopers) to arrest Rohm. There was a clash and 400 SA members died. Rohm was arrested and shot the next day. Hitler was now the head of the army. A month later Hindenburg died and he combined the posts President, Chancellor and commander in chief of army to make "Fuhrer". Hitler was now a dictator. Sum up: January 1932 - 6 million unemployed --> Hitler uses Depression to advantage --> 2nd Largest party --> Stands again Hindenburg, loses --> Nazi's largest party in Reichstag (1932) ...read more.


From a young age children were told to inform, Hitler kept his position because people were scared of being informed on. Another way he kept his position is by controlling the media, the Nazi controlled all media which meant he could get people to think what he wanted them to think. People also feared being sent to camps. People had seen what happened on night of long knives and saw that if they were against the Nazis that would happen to them as well. Russia B) Tsar Nicholas was all powerfull. The church taught that everything that the Tsar said should be obeyed. There wasn't a government for a long time but when there was he could dismiss it if he wanted to. He owned 8 palaces all over Russia. He controlled the army and had a loyal legion called the Cossacks and he also had a secret police called Okrana which sorted out all the opposition. C) WW1 Effect on Russia - There were high casualties, 1.7 million dead by end of 1917. The money and railway were being used to supply the army so there weren't enough resources or money and this caused starvation in peasant towns. The Russians had lost land to the Germans; losing land is always bad for a country. Because there was a shortage of food and resources it caused inflation to rocket. There was anger about the war because the soldiers didn't have enough munitions and they were badly led. Russia was left to be run by Alexandra the Tsarina. D) Provisional Government Survival - The government failed to solve the problem of inflation in fact inflation grew to 10 times that in 1914. It also didn't stop the war which is what the majority of people wanted. There were food shortages which led to riots. The opposition against them was growing stronger. The network of soviets was growing. There were many army and navy mutinies. The Petrograd soviet also ordered order number one which meant that all army personnel should reject anything that the PG told them. ...read more.

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