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' Tzarist Rule In the Years 1856-1917 and Communist Rule From the Death of Lenin To the Death of Stalin Depended On High Degrees of Central Power and Control By the State. the Similarities Between the Two Forms of Government Were Therefore Much Greate...

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Introduction

' TZARIST RULE IN THE YEARS 1856-1917 AND COMMUNIST RULE FROM THE DEATH OF LENIN TO THE DEATH OF STALIN DEPENDED ON HIGH DEGREES OF CENTRAL POWER AND CONTROL BY THE STATE. THE SIMILARITIES BETWEEN THE TWO FORMS OF GOVERNMENT WERE THEREFORE MUCH GREATER THAN THE DIFFERENCES.' HOW FAR DO YOU AGREE WITH THIS STATEMENT? Both forms of government did depend on high degree of central control. However, some Tsars and Stalin exerted more central controls than others. Stalin's stronger use of central control created differences between the two forms of government. The Tsars used different levels of central control. Alexander II used very little. He had emancipated the serfs, created the zemstva and allowed freedom of religion. Alexander III most resembled Stalin by using the most central controls. He also increased the power of his Predecessors secret police, renaming them the Okrana. The Okrana were similar to Stalin's secret police (NKVD.) Both were violent against minority groups and Russian's opposing the state. They could arrest anyone on suspicion of being an enemy of the state without any evidence. But Stalin used the NKVD as a central control to a bigger extent than the Tsar. During the purges (1934-38) the NKVD were vital. They arrested twenty million people in 1937 and created fear amongst communist workers, which became their biggest motivator. ...read more.

Middle

Which was even less than the amount produced in 1913. Agriculture policies failed for Russia throughout both Tsarist and Communist rule. Hence the great need for Khrushchev to try to modernise agriculture. However, collectivisation was a success for state because it did appear communism worked, which had been Stalin's main aim. He had managed to collectivise the country in four years and peasants were too scared of the NKVD to rebel. They scrutinised them in the Mechanical Tractor Stations but although peasants did not rebel, the peasants incentive disappeared which is why grain productivity had fallen in 1934. A similar reason agriculture did not improve in Tsarist and Communist Russia was peasant conservatism. In Tsarist Russia the peasants had not wanted to use new farming methods and liked the security of the Mir which was why in 1914 the number of kulaks was limited and Stolypin had only managed to use his strip system on 10% of the land and under Stalin the peasants had refused new machinery, this meant agriculture could not progress for both governments and they had to focus on how to deal with the peasants rather than the actual policy itself. The peasants had no incentive to grow food, they received no reward and did not see the point in growing the food so that the NKVD could take it away. ...read more.

Conclusion

Agriculture was also a failure for both forms of government. Neither forms of governments managed to give peasants an incentive and change their conservative views, Harold Stukman; "A minority achieved success as independent farmers, while the majority were unable to withstand rising taxes." Brian Moynahal; "A quarter of cattle, sheep and goats, and a third of pigs were slaughtered in 1930 by peasants who were determined that they should not be given to the collective." However, there were some major differences between the two forms of government. As time progressed the Tsars lost support from the nobles and power, after 1905 revolution Nicholas II had very little central control. But Stalin's dictatorship increased in strength and by 1938, the purges had made Russian's so fearful, they were willing to accept the totalitarian ruler instead of the democratic system which had originally been hoped for in the February 1917 revolution. Stalin had also used fear as a motivator for workers and managed to industrialise. Overall the most similarities occur between Alexander III and Stalin due to their repressive actions but although all the Tsars and Stalin depended on central control, it cannot be said that there were more similarities because of the power and support for Stalin's when his reign ended compared to the weak Tsarist system which Russians felt was not worth saving. Total Word Count 3247 ...read more.

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