Unification Movements - Italian unification
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Unification Movements Italian unification * Background * After Napoleon, the Italian states were controlled by France. * Effect: * 1. They experienced the unity under the rule of an efficient government. * 2. They felt that they disliked being ruled by foreign countries, therefore nationalist feeling was aroused. * After the Congress of Vienna in 1815-16, they were divided into 8 states and the northern part of Italy was controlled by Austria-Hungary. * Again, they disliked the alien rule and wanted to be independent. The nationalist movement began. * In 1820-30s, the Carbonari was formed in Naples. They carried out a series of revolutions, but all of them failed because they lacked organization and mass support. There was also no capable leader. * In 1831, Mazzini formed the Society of Young Italy (it was more popular). He believed that the revolutions failed because the people in the Italian states had no strong nationalism. Therefore he spread nationalism throughout Italy. * Mazzini wanted to set up the Republic of Italy to unify Italy into one country and planned to revolt. He planned to attack Piedmont (the strongest, independent Italian state) through Switzerland. * Finally, he failed. * In 1848, there was Risorgimento movement. Many anti-Austrian movements were carried out. * After Metternich fell from power, more Italians supported the movement. * However, they all failed because: * 1.
* In 1866, Prussia started the Austria-Prussian War. Prussia defeated Austria and got Venetia from Austria and gave it to Piedmont. * In 1870-71, when Prussia started the Franco-Prussian War, France needed to send army to other places to fight against Prussia. With Rome evacuated, Piedmont got the chance to get back Rome. * In 1870, Italy succeeded to unify with foreign help. German unification (1870-71) * Germany after the Congress of Vienna (1815-16) * After the Congress, the amount of German states (German Confederation) were reduced from 100 to 39 states. This helped the unification movement. * Prussia (an independent German state) was the most powerful state and was ready to be the leading state to unify Germany. * Germany in 1830 * Most of the people had ideas of nationalism and carried out lots of revolutions to fight against their enemies: Austria and France. * However, most of the revolutions failed because of the suppression of Metternich (Austria). * Economic development--- The Zollverein * The Zollverein was a custom union in German states. * The leader of union was Prussia. She tried to strengthen the economy of the German states in order to help the unification. * Moreover, she wanted to arouse nationalism of the states and excluded Austria. * The 1848 Revolution * The year 1848 was important because Metternich fell from power and the German states carried out revolutions to fight against alien rule.
* However, France opposed. Finally, Spain turned down the proposal. * France still asked Prussia for a written guarantee that no German would be chosen to be the king of Spain. * Ems Telegram * In 1870, France ambassador interviewed with the Prussian king William I and asked for his assurance (to never support a Hohenzollern candidate for the Spanish throne). * The King of Prussia (having a holiday in Ems) reported the interview and sent it to Bismarck for publication. This was the Ems Telegram. Bismarck rephrased/rewrote the telegram. * France was angry. She started a war with Prussia but she lost. * Result: The Treaty of Frankfurt (1871) * 1. France gave Alsace and Lorraine to Germany (France wanted to take revenge on Germany because this is a symbol of failure). * 2. France paid indemnity (5 million francs) to Germany (Germany occupied part of France until she paid all the debt). After about 2-3 years France (Their) paid all indemnity. * 3. France lost her master status in Europe. * 4. Germany succeeded to unify the southern part and Germany was completely unified in 1871. * 5. Since France needed to send army to fight against Prussia, Rome was evacuated and Italy occupied Rome and succeeded to unify during the Franco Prussian-War (1870). (Different from Italy, German was unified after the war, not during the war.) 6 1
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