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Was a 2nd revolution necessary in Russia in 1917?

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Victor Kwan European History P.3 Dr. Salomon 13 February 2003 Was a 2nd revolution necessary in Russia in 1917? In 1914, Russia celebrated its three hundred year of Romanov rule. Tsar Nicolas II was in control of Russia even though Russia was an economically backward and peasant country. The army and the Duma were supporting the Tsar, but the intelligentsia was restless and displeased with the way the government was run. In the same year, Germany declared war against Russia, which consolidated even more support for the Tsar. Anti-government protest and strikes were abandoned as the people were swept in a rush of patriotism. In 1914, thirteen million were conscripted into the army. This patriotic feeling did not last long as the Russian armies plagued by inefficient management suffered major problems over lack of supplies and ammunitions. In 1915, the Russian army was on the verge of collapse; Tsar Nicolas II assumed personal command of the army leaving the Tsarina in command of the home front. The majority of the Russian disliked the tsarina because she was German and she was closely involved with the mysterious Rasputin. She and her supporters in court were known as the Pro-German faction; the Tsarina did not rule directly she took advise from Rasputin which made her even more unpopular with the people. ...read more.


This gave the Soviets the impression that they were the ones who were distributing food and goods which gained them tremendous support and popularity. In April 1917, the Germans provided a safe passage for Vladimir Lenin to Russia in a special sealed train knowing that the revolutionary would bring more unrest in an already troubled Russia. Lenin immediately announced his April Thesis in which he stated that he planned to give the citizens of Russia bread, land and peace in return for all power given to the Soviets. The promise for bread, land and peace assured the Soviets popular support from the huge majority of the population. The April Thesis gave the Russian population a chance to clearly see what the Soviets were offering them and further outlined the failure of the Provisional Government, which continued to support the war and its failure to solve the question of land ownership. Kerensky committed a critical error in ordering a new wave of offensive maneuvers against the Germans, which resulted in massive defeats and further desertions in the army. The majority of the Russian population became more and more convinced that the Soviets were the basis of a new Russian government whereas the Provisional Government did not appeal to the masses. In June, the Soviets convened the National Congress of Soviets, which started to challenge the actions of the Provisional Government. ...read more.


They stormed the Winter Palace encountering little resistance and arrested members of the Provisional Government. Kerensky managed to escape and went into exile in America. The Bolsheviks have taken over Petrograd and secured a communist Russia. Lenin had done what he had envisioned all power to Soviets. Marx had argued that a society had to go through two revolutions to achieve Communism/Marxism; a liberal bourgeois one followed by an uprising of the urban proletariat against the bourgeoisie. This had indeed come true in Russia although at a faster rate than Marx had predicted. The second revolution was essential as to the communist revolution as the first revolution was only successful in persuading the Tsar to abdicate but was utterly incapable of administering the country. The second revolution ensured that the power would go to the urban proletariat. Hence the second revolution was necessary. Russia's autocracy had impended the growth of a strong middle class, which existed in the western countries. The strong middle class would have a lot to lose if there came to be an urban proletariat uprising therefore they would be as radical in their actions and would rather opt for reform. The lack of the middle class prevented reform to take place in the Russian government thus allowing revolution to slowly grow and implode on the government at a time of instability. ...read more.

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