• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Was a 2nd revolution necessary in Russia in 1917?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Victor Kwan European History P.3 Dr. Salomon 13 February 2003 Was a 2nd revolution necessary in Russia in 1917? In 1914, Russia celebrated its three hundred year of Romanov rule. Tsar Nicolas II was in control of Russia even though Russia was an economically backward and peasant country. The army and the Duma were supporting the Tsar, but the intelligentsia was restless and displeased with the way the government was run. In the same year, Germany declared war against Russia, which consolidated even more support for the Tsar. Anti-government protest and strikes were abandoned as the people were swept in a rush of patriotism. In 1914, thirteen million were conscripted into the army. This patriotic feeling did not last long as the Russian armies plagued by inefficient management suffered major problems over lack of supplies and ammunitions. In 1915, the Russian army was on the verge of collapse; Tsar Nicolas II assumed personal command of the army leaving the Tsarina in command of the home front. The majority of the Russian disliked the tsarina because she was German and she was closely involved with the mysterious Rasputin. She and her supporters in court were known as the Pro-German faction; the Tsarina did not rule directly she took advise from Rasputin which made her even more unpopular with the people. ...read more.

Middle

This gave the Soviets the impression that they were the ones who were distributing food and goods which gained them tremendous support and popularity. In April 1917, the Germans provided a safe passage for Vladimir Lenin to Russia in a special sealed train knowing that the revolutionary would bring more unrest in an already troubled Russia. Lenin immediately announced his April Thesis in which he stated that he planned to give the citizens of Russia bread, land and peace in return for all power given to the Soviets. The promise for bread, land and peace assured the Soviets popular support from the huge majority of the population. The April Thesis gave the Russian population a chance to clearly see what the Soviets were offering them and further outlined the failure of the Provisional Government, which continued to support the war and its failure to solve the question of land ownership. Kerensky committed a critical error in ordering a new wave of offensive maneuvers against the Germans, which resulted in massive defeats and further desertions in the army. The majority of the Russian population became more and more convinced that the Soviets were the basis of a new Russian government whereas the Provisional Government did not appeal to the masses. In June, the Soviets convened the National Congress of Soviets, which started to challenge the actions of the Provisional Government. ...read more.

Conclusion

They stormed the Winter Palace encountering little resistance and arrested members of the Provisional Government. Kerensky managed to escape and went into exile in America. The Bolsheviks have taken over Petrograd and secured a communist Russia. Lenin had done what he had envisioned all power to Soviets. Marx had argued that a society had to go through two revolutions to achieve Communism/Marxism; a liberal bourgeois one followed by an uprising of the urban proletariat against the bourgeoisie. This had indeed come true in Russia although at a faster rate than Marx had predicted. The second revolution was essential as to the communist revolution as the first revolution was only successful in persuading the Tsar to abdicate but was utterly incapable of administering the country. The second revolution ensured that the power would go to the urban proletariat. Hence the second revolution was necessary. Russia's autocracy had impended the growth of a strong middle class, which existed in the western countries. The strong middle class would have a lot to lose if there came to be an urban proletariat uprising therefore they would be as radical in their actions and would rather opt for reform. The lack of the middle class prevented reform to take place in the Russian government thus allowing revolution to slowly grow and implode on the government at a time of instability. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Russia, USSR 1905-1941 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Russia, USSR 1905-1941 essays

  1. Why did the Tsarist regime fall in 1917?

    Conditions worsened even more, as the First World War affected Russia colossally. The effects of the First World War contributed to the fall of the Tsarist regime in 1917 because of a number of factors. Firstly, the discontent amongst ordinary Russian civilians would have been greatly increased due to the food shortages, and defeats caused by the First World War.

  2. The Russian Revolution 1917

    However, It is much more likely that these policies and decisions were made not because of the supreme minds of the members of the Bolshevik party - many were not even well educated - but due to luck. They were lucky that the decisions they made happened to be the right ones.

  1. Many causes could lead to a revolution. In 1917, there were two distinct Revolutions ...

    to a situation similar or perhaps even worse than before the revolution. No progress was observed economically, politically or socially as the people had hoped. The people remained unhappy with their lives, the government and the fact that the war is still on.

  2. How and why did the Bolsheviks seize power in 1917?

    These were the new middle class, which Russia had only seen as shopkeepers and university lecturers, but landowners, bankers, industrialists and businessmen flourished. The capitalist's main concern was the management of the economy and controlling their workforce. The clashes between the workers and the capitalists are another huge factor that lead up to the revolution in 1917.

  1. Why did the Tsar abdicate after the 1917 revolution

    But later that year the Tsar got rid of the October Manifesto and exiled or imprisoned any one who argued. The reason this condemned him in 1917 was because after the Tsar got rid of the Manifesto the people didn't trust him so therefore in 1917 he had no escape, they would only settle for his abdication.

  2. Events leading to the end of the Tsarist Russia and the 1917 Revolution

    Although the threat of revolution was more of a spontaneous sequence of event instead of a coordinated act, the tsar recognised the potential of the discontent and had to back track and makes some sort of reform and concession. The October manifesto granted freedom of speeches, rights to form political

  1. Lenin's Importance in the 1917 Revolutions.

    Consequently, it can be disclosed that Trotsky?s significance cannot be undermined as he had the main connections with the other revolutionaries. For example, Chudnovskii, a friend of Trotsky?s, under Trotsky?s overall command and a chairmanship in the Petrograd Soviet, reveals Trotsky?s strong connections with workers desperate for change in Russia.

  2. How significant a figure in the revolution of 1917 Russia was Lenin?

    councils formed by elected workers and peasants which were attractive to the people as a good option for new ways to find new leaders; The discontent of the peasant farmers in the countryside and how they were being treated by the regime and The DUMA setting up an alternative and more attractive government to many.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work