• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Watergate scandal

Extracts from this document...


Describe the main features of the Watergate scandal in the USA. The Watergate Scandal was caused by an attempt to bug the offices of the Democrat Party in the Watergate building in Washington. Five men were arrested in June 1972. The men were employed by CREEP, Committee to re-elect the President. Some of the key features were the secretive activites CREEP, dirty tricks, the cover-up, role of television, senate hearings, Nixon's registration and the scandal's impact on politics. In 1968, Richard Nixon, the Republican candidate, was elected president. In 1972 he would have to seek-reelection. Concerned that he might not be re-elected, he set up CREEP, "Committee to Re-elect the President". It was led by John Mitchell, a close adviser to Nixon, who was encouraged to use any tactics he saw fit to ensure Nixon's re-election, including dirty tricks or illegal methods. Sixty million dollars were illegally collected to fight this campaign, with $350,000 set aside for these dirty tricks, including the idea of "bugging" the Democrat offices at Watergate. This campaign led to the break in which started scandal and led to the cover-up. On 17th June, five members of CREEP were arrested for breaking into the Watergate offices. These burglars turned out to be rather unusual. They were not stealing from the offices, but instead planting electronic bugging devices. ...read more.


He also announced an investigation with Archibald Cox appointed as special Watergate prosecutor. Although Nixon denied everything to break-in, he did confess that his two top advisers were involved. The senate became overly suspicious by this, believing that Nixon was hiding vital information. The investigation was headed by Senator Sam Ervin. The Senate Watergate Committee heard evidence between May and November 1973. In the televised public hearing it became clear that very senior White House Officials were involved. Three of Nixon's leading advisers resigned. One of the, told the investigation that he had discussed the Watergate burglary at least 35 times with Nixon. Nixon still denied any involvement. Nixon was digging himself deeper in his lies, making more people suspicious. It was a matter of time before he became uncovered. The most significant evidence was from one White House aide who told the Senate Committee that in 1971 Nixon had installed a tape-recording system in the White House and that all the President's conversations had been taped. Both the Senate Committee and Cox asked Nixon to hand over the tapes. He refused, insisting it would breach national security and sacked Cox on 20th October. The Attorney General resigned in protest. The new prosecutor, Leon Jaworksi, also demanded the tapes. Nixon handed over seven of the nine tapes but they had been heavily edited- one of them had eighteen minutes missing. ...read more.


Everything was exposed, and thus no-one can do anything secretly to change information. Moreover, stopping the President using federal money for personal reasons was to ensure that the new President would not abuse his position or the money he was granted, and take advantage of privileges he was given, again like Nixon. In conclusion, it must be argued that the Watergate scandal ruined USA's prestige abroad. Nixon was adamant to continue his presidency, thus he employed five burglars to bug the offices of the Democrat Party in the Watergate building in Washington. Throughout the scandal, Nixon persistently lied, and continued to maintain his innocence. He even appointed Archibald Cox as a special investigator. When challenged by the Senate, he adamant he was innocent, until asked for the tapes, which he refused to hand over. This caused great suspicion, as it portrayed Nixon was hiding key information. At last, Nixon handed over the tapes. However, clips were edited out, and his vulgar language was seen nationally. The US public were appalled by this, as they trusted and believed in Nixon. The tapes proved that Nixon had lied and that he had tried to prevent the investigation, but not that he had known about the original break-in. Congress decided to impeach Nixon, but to save himself from humiliation and disgrace he resigned. The Watergate Scandal clearly showed that Nixon was unable to continue his Presidency through cheating, and dirty tricks. Many people were mortified by Nixon's ruthless actions, and hypocrisy, and lost faith in US politics. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE USA 1941-80 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a star student thought of this essay

3 star(s)

Response to the question

The student has answered the question of "describing the Watergate Scandal" very well, however, fails to "explain the significance" of the event. Whilst not explicit in the question set (and depending on the exam board), the explanation can rarely be ...

Read full review

Response to the question

The student has answered the question of "describing the Watergate Scandal" very well, however, fails to "explain the significance" of the event. Whilst not explicit in the question set (and depending on the exam board), the explanation can rarely be overlooked. At times, the student does relate the asserted points to its significance in the scandal but this is not always obvious. The student has a very strong understanding of the events that happened before, during and after the scandal that is very obvious in the essay as they have presented it in a chronological order, detailling each stage that led to the scandal. To answer the essay, the student can adopt the approach to assume that the examiner knows all the events but doesn't quite understand the details and how it all links together. In this way, the student ensures that they address the question in a PEE (point, evidence, explain) way and will therefore answer all of the question. However, the student has tackled this question well as such questions are perhaps the hardest to answer.

Level of analysis

The understanding of the events and the level of detail included in this essay is outstanding, however, as mentioned above, it does lack some analysis in places. The evidence is certainly obvious, but in this case, it is the making of judgements that has let this student down. The student's argument does not really become clear until the conclusion and offers no judgement to a main outcome to the scandal. The student adopts a 'sit on the fence' approach, which is very typical of GCSE students, but students should remember to always try and 'take a side and stick to it'. This offers a good lead to how to structure the essay as it gives the essay a 'for' and 'against' side for such questions. The conclusion was also a little repetitive, but this is almost unavoidable in many cases. Yet, it is worth trying to avoid the copying information from the paragraphs and just paraphrasing slightly in the conclusion as it doesn't do favours for the essay.

Quality of writing

I found one spelling mistake and punctuation mistake along with a few questionable grammatical errors. Such mistakes do not leave a great impression for the examiner and is best avoided by thoroughly checking over the work. The technical terms used for appropriate for a GCSE student and it is commendable that the student defined CREEP the first time it appeared in the essay before going on to just using the abbreviation. One thing that I would draw the attention to (and it is very common), is the usage of speech and quote marks. "...." is used when quoting someone whilst '....' is used for colloquial terms or when highlighting word in the sentence (usually because it's not the best word to use but the definition of the chosen word is close enough to convey the idea). The student follows typical conventions of setting out the essay in chorological order and perhaps for this essay, it is the best way to structure it but this should be interlinked into the argument of the essay and should not guide the essay.

Did you find this review helpful? Join our team of reviewers and help other students learn

Reviewed by crystalclearmagic 24/04/2012

Read less
Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE USA 1941-80 essays

  1. Blacks were substantially better off in 1877 than they had been in 1863.' How ...

    The Judicial System also seemed to be against them. The Supreme Court, by 1877, had overturned all the Enforcement and Civil Rights Acts. This left the African-Americans without any protection from the law against terrorists groups i.e.

  2. "Why did relations between the USA and USSR change in the years 1945-49?"

    France's to recover economically from the war and eventually be unified into a new West Germany, opposed Stalin's ideas of keeping Germany weak. He did not want a strong West Germany emerging that could threaten Russia and the communist bloc.

  1. What happened at Sharpeville on 21 March 1960? Massacre or self defence?

    Emerged as a wreck'. This disagrees with Source F which says that the crowd were 'good natured' so the Source may not be completely reliable. Photograph sources C and D could support the reliability of F because there does not appear to be much protest and the crowd appears to be mostly 'good natured' as described in F.

  2. Free essay

    why the USA withdrew its forces from Vietnam in 1973

    Military-Industrial Complex- USA companies made military vehicles and weapons and thus were making big profits from the war. To many Americans this was wrong. Nixon's secret invasion of Cambodia- Opposition greatly increased in 1970 when the people found out that Nixon had ordered the secret invasion of Cambodia.

  1. Why is President John F Kennedy such a famous and controversial figure in history?

    Even though the source may not be fully adequate. It is factual; as it gives us the laws Kennedy didn't get passed. The source also compares Kennedy with other president. This shows that the source has been researched for. Plus we can trust the source. It is an accurate assessment of Kennedy's actions and ability even though these actions are limited.

  2. Civil disobedience: peaceful or passive protest against a governmental body in rebuttal of some ...

    with patience comes the clear-headed thinking required to bring down the forces of the oppressor. No effective act of disobedience can be random; it must be carefully planned and executed accordingly. When the Germans wanted to impose anti-Jewish methods upon German Jews taking refuge in Denmark, they were met with

  1. Martin and Malcolm: Two Voices for Justice

    called for strong and intelligent members of the black community to step up to the role of leadership and help unify the black masses. The last objective, of which he was most passionate, was nonviolence.16 As learned from Mahatma Gandhi, Martin preached that hatred only led to bitterness and bloodshed,

  2. With what truth can it be asserted that the U.S.A was the land of ...

    then either imprisoned or expelled is a perfect example of white hostility not only by the general public, but by leading figures of America. Jury's were often influenced by prejudice, thus these citizens were often denied their rights guaranteed by the 14th and 15th Amendments, and thus the U.S was not a land of equality for these groups.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work