• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10
  11. 11
    11
  12. 12
    12
  13. 13
    13
  14. 14
    14
  15. 15
    15
  16. 16
    16
  17. 17
    17
  18. 18
    18
  19. 19
    19
  20. 20
    20
  21. 21
    21
  22. 22
    22
  23. 23
    23
  24. 24
    24
  25. 25
    25
  26. 26
    26
  27. 27
    27

Weimar, 1918 - 1923

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Weimar, 1918 - 1923 1) Abdication and the 'Stab in the Back' 2) The German Revolution 3) The Treaty of Versailles 4) The Kapp Putsch, 1920 5) Formation of the Nazi Party 6) Economics and the Ruhr 7) The NSDAP, 1921-23 8) Internal Disorder 9) The Munich Putsch 10) The Trial 11) Essay Questions 1. Abdication and the 'Stab in the Back' a. War situation and the generals In the summer of 1918, WW I began to develop into open. After the initial success of Operation Michael, the Germans were on the retreat. The generals decided that Germany should sign an armistice. WL Shirer "General Ludendorff, the actual leader of the High Command, had insisted on September 28, 1918, on an armistice 'at once' and his nominal superior, Field-Marshal von Hindenburg, had supported him." D Thomson "With news of unrest at home, even rumours of revolution, it was the nerve of the German generals, especially of Ludendorff, which broke first." On October 2nd, Hindenburg reiterated the need for a truce to the Kaiser, stating that "The army cannot wait forty-eight hours." b. Civilian Government At the end of September 1918, the conduct of the war passed into civilian hands. Prince Max of Baden became Chancellor, responsible to the Reichstag rather than the Kaiser. Germany had effectively become a constitutional monarchy. This government wanted to continue the war in spite of the generals' objections. c. Civil Unrest i) Kiel On 4th November a Workers' and Soldiers' Council (a Soviet) was set up in defiance of the central authorities. Sailors began to mutiny, but this was limited. AJ Nicholls "During the first few days after the Kiel disturbances power had changed hands in only a few north-western cities and only on a local level." ii) Munich A by-election campaign was changed into agitation for a republic. Faced with growing violence King Ludwig III (the last Wittelsbach monarch) ...read more.

Middle

The workers of the Ruhr declared a general strike and received financial support from the government in Berlin, which called for a campaign of passive resistance." AJ Nicholls "Businessmen, officials and workers were not to co-operate with the occupying powers. The Reich government met the financial losses involved in this resistance. Acts of sabotage were also organised by clandestine paramilitary groups under the authority of the Reichswehr." In France, the population supported Poincar´┐Ż's actions. The French government met sabotage with repression of workers, industrialists and civil servants, bringing French workers into the Ruhr to replace the Germans. Sabotage continued; one saboteur, Albert Schlageter, was shot and became a national hero. KD Bracher "The occupation itself proved highly uneconomical; it was unprofitable for the French economy and at the same time brought the passively resisting German economy to the brink of bankruptcy. The German currency fell disastrously ... The inflation brought impoverishment to large segments of the population." e. Inflation D Thomson "The government printed paper money recklessly until by November [1923] the mark had completely collapsed in value." The government printed more and more money to pay for the passive resistance in the Ruhr and to keep the economy running. Naturally, this caused rampant inflation and a drastic reduction in the mark's value. * January 1923: $1 = 18,000 Marks * July 1st, 1923: $1 = 160,000 Marks * August 1923: $1 = 1,000,000 Marks * November 1923: $1 = 4,000 million Marks Lord Bullock "On 15th November 1923, it took a million, million marks to equal the purchasing power of one 1914 mark." The effects were dramatic: the savings of the middle classes were wiped out; these people blamed the government - the Weimar Republic that had accepted the burden of reparations. The working classes, too, became embittered; the KPD began to experience increased membership. AJ Nicholls "Inflation ... was like a plague, affecting all classes whatever their political persuasion or social status." ...read more.

Conclusion

WL Shirer "The putsch, even though it was a fiasco, made Hitler a national figure and, in the eyes of many, a patriot and a hero. Nazi propaganda soon transformed it into one of the great legends of the movement." 11. Essay Questions The following lists are only suggestions; none are complete. Use all possible sources to answer essay questions, especially Vol. 1 of 'Nazism, 1919-1945' by J Noakes and G Pridham and 'Europe 1890-1990' by J Traynor. a. Why was there opposition to the Weimar Republic in the period 1919-23? * November Criminals and the 'Stab in the Back' * The acceptance of the armistice and Treaty of Versailles * Fear of Communism / extreme nationalism * Economic problems * Exciting leaders of opposition groups * Foreign 'encouragement' b. From where did opposition to the Weimar Republic come in the period 1919-23? * Extremes of politics, left and right: * Ordinary soldiers returning from the war * Organisations like the Freikorps * The army officer class * The working classes (economic discontent) * Social idealists * Nationalists, imperialists and monarchists c. Why did the opposition to the Weimar Republic fail in the period 1920-23? d. Why was the Weimar Republic able to survive the threats from inside Germany in the period 1919-23? * Division of opposition * Limited numbers of opposition * The army was not willing to rebel en masse, strengthening the government * Growing support for Weimar, especially in 1923 * The apathy of the majority of the population * Major parties contained opponents, therefore, people id not look to the extremists e. Why did the NSDAP attempt to gain power via a Putsch in 1923, and why did the attempt fail? * Economic situation * Hitler's ideas * Internal pressure * Foreign examples and successes * Lack of popular support * Weaknesses in the plan * The work of the triumvirate * The opposition of the army * Lack of force and strength in the Nazis * Document 3 in Vol. 1 of 'Nazism, 1919-1945' by J Noakes and G Pridham * p123, 'Europe 1890-1990' by John Traynor ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Germany 1918-1939 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Germany 1918-1939 essays

  1. Nazi Strengths and Opposition Weaknesses

    Opposition Weaknesses Failure To Deal With The Depression Because the Nazis opposition didn't do anything to stop or prevent the depression and the Nazis themselves did at least say they would do something this made all the people affected by the depression almost immediately support the Nazis.

  2. Why did the Munich putsch fail?

    This was bad for Hitler and his planning. Why would people march against a chancellor that is helping the country, this was a bad decision for Hitler to try and take over the party at force at this stage of time because the country was improving not destabilising.

  1. The Munich Putsch: success or failure?

    This proved to be a huge mistake, as immediately he was allowed to leave; Kahr contacted the Police and the Army and informed them of the uprising. Hitler's diabolical judgement of Kahr proved to be critical as the following day when Hitler, Ludendorff and 3000 Nazis marched into Munich, 16 Nazis supporters were killed.

  2. The weak Weimar government was a major factor in Hitler rise to power, however ...

    For his valuable service in the war, he was assigned to a political section of the army. His anti-semetic beliefs, which also brought him much attention, resulted in him later being assigned as an educational officer (a 'bildungsoffzier'). His job objective was to oppose dangerous ideas such as pacifism, socialism,

  1. What problems did the Weimar Republic face between 1919 and 1923?

    Furthur more, Upper Silesia was another industrial area lost. The losses were equally as important as losing the Saarland because it meant that Germany lost out on economic gain and put her in an awkward position concerning her ability to pay the demands of the victorious nations. The loss of the individual industrial lands meant that the losses could

  2. Did The Nazis Succeed in Controlling the Hearts and Minds of German Youth?

    "when I raised my right hand but of the attractive prospect of participating in games, sports, hiking, singing, camping and other exciting activities away from home". And how later when the emphasis in the Hitler Youth changed to indoctrination she became disillusioned with it "it was not long, however, before plain-faced leaders taught us marching drill and marching songs..."

  1. GCSE History Coursework: Reichstag Fire 1) ...

    Reichstag as a way of getting the emergency powers and tackling Communism. However, this source cannot be wholly reliable, as it was evidence from Halder at his trial in Nuremburg, so he is bound to have been biased or lied entirely to get the blame of the fire off of him.

  2. What was the significance of the Munich Putsch for the development of the Nazi ...

    Before 1923 the Nazi party was a paramilitary party but Hitler realised that this would have to change and stated that ?we will need to hold our noses and enter the Reichstag?. Hitler?s plan was to gain power through democracy and use the powers given to him through democracy to destroy democracy.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work