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Weimar, 1924 - 1929

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Weimar, 1924 - 1929 1) Landsberg and Mein Kampf 2) 1924 Elections 3) Situation on Release 4) Hitler Regains Control 5) The Strassers 6) Growing Support, 1924-29 7) Politics, 1924-29 1. Landsberg and Mein Kampf Hitler was sentenced to 5 years' imprisonment in April 1924. However, he served less than a year, being released on December 20th that year. He was imprisoned in Landsberg gaol, and it was hardly harsh. KD Bracher "The prison took on the air of a party head-quarters ... with Hitler, dressed in leather shorts ... receiving the tributes of his minions, and the letters, floral gifts, and expressions of sympathy of the outside world. These included birthday greetings from the aged Houston Stewart Chamberlain." Hitler was allowed to receive visitors whenever he wanted and was not forced to undertake normal prison work. Instead, he wrote the first volume of his book Mein Kampf (My Struggle). This book was an outline of his political memoirs so far, his ideology and his future plans; it was not very interesting reading. AJ Nicholls "Mein Kampf ... was a long, rambling and badly written book which demonstrated that Hitler's gifts as an orator could not easily be turned to literary purposes." It shows the origins of Hitler's ideas and reveals that the majority of his beliefs were 'borrowed' from other authors and philosophers. KD Bracher "Mein Kampf ... is truly only original in those parts in which Hitler discusses his crude and effective methods of propaganda, organisation and mass psychology with cynical frankness." Mein Kampf was not a great success. It did not sell widely, even among party members, until 1933. By 1929, Vol. I had sold 23,000 copies, Vol. II 13,000 copies. 2. 1924 Elections While Hitler was in prison at Landsberg, there were two sets of national elections* and one local election. a. Bavarian Parliamentary Elections (April 6th) In these, (5 days after Hitler's trial ended), the Nazis did well, standing under the name of the V�lkisch Bloc. ...read more.

Middle

KD Bracher "G�bbels inaugurated a new propaganda style, in which intellectual cunning and the mass appeal of tabloids were combined into an effective amalgam of slander and pathos." Meetings and rallies, were held where there were no bans. In July 1926, the first post-Putsch congress was held in Weimar, Thuringia. Another was held in Nuremberg (Aug 27) at which Hitler unified the party. KD Bracher "The effect of the congress on the inner cohesion and self-confidence of the party and its leaders was probably of greater significance than its outside impact." b. Internal Party Re-Organisation The internal workings of the party were reorganised in line with the party's new aim. i. Political Machinery This was divided into two groups: WL Shirer "P.O. I, designed to attack and undermine the government, and P.O. II to establish a state within a state." P.O. I is simple to understand. Its role was to co-ordinate attacks on government policies both in the press and in speeches etc. P.O. II is more complicated. It was a party bureaucracy, a framework for government once power had been achieved. Government-like 'ministries' were created to shadow real government department. There were 'ministries' for foreign policy, press, industrial relations, agriculture, economy, interior, justice, science and labour etc. KD Bracher "There came into being a shadow state which, with the seizure of power, was able to almost automatically take over the reins of government: Reich and regional leaders supplied ministers and government leaders." ii. Regional Organisation To achieve control of the regional branches, Hitler reorganised them to his liking. By 1925 there were 607 local groups; those distant from Munich were almost independent of central party control. Therefore, Hitler divided the country into districts, or Gaue. These corresponded with the 34 Reichstag electoral districts. At the head of each Gau was a Gauleiter, appointed personally by Hitler. Gaue were also created for Austria, Danzig and the Sudetenland. ...read more.

Conclusion

55 1927 122 * Real wages were 10% higher than in 1924; * National Income had risen by 12% between 1923 and 1928; * Output per man-hour was up by 17% in 1929 compared to 1925. Impressive as these figures seem, they pale in comparison to the boom the rest of the world was enjoying. Between 1913 and 1929, the US economy grew by 70% and the French by 38%, while the German economy grew by a mere 4%. It must not be forgotten that the majority of German growth was also dependent on loans from foreign countries. h. Rearmament Despite the limitations imposed on Germany in the Treaty of Versailles, the Weimar governments secretly promoted the expansion of the Reichswehr and armaments manufacturing. * In 1925, Germany and Russia signed trade treaties (including secret agreements that followed on from Rapallo in 1921), allowing Germany to develop and test armaments in the Soviet Union; * In 1925, Krupps gained a controlling interest in Bofors, a Swedish arms manufacturer, and began to develop heavy guns, anti-aircraft guns and tanks; * In 1928, Germany developed the 'pocket battleship', which displaced less than 10,000 tonnes (and so was still legal) but was far more capable than anything the Allies had envisaged falling into the 'acceptable' category. The former Allies and the League must have known what was happening but did nothing, despite having evidence in front of them. In January 1927 the Allied Commission of Control was withdrawn from Germany. Report of the Allied Commission of Control "Germany had never disarmed, had never had the intention of disarming, and for 7 years had done everything in her power to deceive and 'counter-control' the Commission appointed to control her disarmament." German budget expenditure was open to public scrutiny. In 1924, the Reichswehr budget was 490 million Marks; in 1928 it was 927 million Marks. * See also article 1) Election Statistics * See 16) The Strassers * See article 1) Electoral Statistics * See Article 1) Election Statictics ...read more.

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