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What Were The Biggest Challenges Facing Nicholas II On His Accession To The Throne, C1894?

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Introduction

What Were The Biggest Challenges Facing Nicholas II On His Accession To The Throne, C1894? Russia's problems were vast. They stretched from pore agriculture output to the lack of industrialisation in Russia before 1894. The westerners suggested that the best way for Russia to reform was to adopt the best features of the political and economic systems that were being used in Western Europe. The slavophiles, perceived this as invading Russia's purity, and they regarded the western values as corrupting and they urged that the nation stay preserved as `holy Russia'. This led to political, social and economic unrest crippling the country. However the western solutions were not necessarily plausible for the reform of Russia, they needed a new structure of reform. Nicholas II faced all of these problems and more during his accession to the throne in 1894, I will study these to discover the main challenges that he faced in obtaining the throne. Agriculture was a large problem for Nicholas II. Russia's agriculture was inefficient and unsystematically patterned. The land of Russia could be better described as national weakness rather than strength. Even though four fifths of the population were peasants a thriving agricultural economy had failed to develop. ...read more.

Middle

In 1893 Russia entered a stage known as `the great spurt'. This led to the country growing rapidly in a short time, changing from an agricultural country to an industrial country. This obviously led to industrial expansion. Russia excelled on the world stage industrially; they had a growth rate of 8% per annum, the highest in the world. This was good for the country as it led to a stable economy and more jobs, whilst also showing a forwardness and modernisation. However a large problem for the country was that the government viewed industrialisation as a means of improving the military strength of Russia. So the Russians still seem to think that expansion and a country's power is based on the military and this could lead to the abandonment of other key features. Nicholas faced many problems through industrialisation. Russia had a notorious backwardness, and lack of capital for industrial investment, so Nicholas had to ensure that industrially and at the same time financially Russia was safe due to the debts. To ensure economic survival Nicholas faced the rap of the public as he increased taxation, also with prices raised for the domestic customer. However the main industrial problem for Nicholas II and Russia was that they followed western ideas, when they needed brand new plans, as the west does not have the answers for Russia's problems. ...read more.

Conclusion

Socially and politically Nicholas' biggest problem was to preserve the autocracy, as there was such a stigma against it from the people. Politically the tsar allowed no room for criticism, this meant that problems that were seen daily be the Russian people would be ignored by the tsar. The most challenging factor politically is that Nicholas would not allow criticism leading to revolts. In Nicholas' attempts to preserve autocracy he leads the country into frustration, violence and no outlet for criticism. He doesn't see the need for reform but stays conservative in preserving the autocracy. Industrially Russia lags behind western countries like England, and agriculturally Russia suffers through land hunger. The great spurt is a clear step forward but is flawed by the redemption dues, money that the government borrowed to peasants. This causes tension between economic reforms. Challenging factors were based around, industrial, agricultural, economic, transportation and political ideas that face Nicholas II in his accession to the throne. The idea is that if you want a democracy and use western ideas then the whole system needs to change. Nicholas' conservative approach to the autocracy meant that Russia lagged behind politically, and also socially, meaning he faced more challenges by trying to `purify' Russia than before. ...read more.

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