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Which of the four reasons given below was most to blame for the failure of the Dardanelles campaign to achieve its military objectives? An ill-thought out plan, Poor command, Bad organisation, and Inadequate forces and supplies from Britain

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Which of the four reasons given below was most to blame for the failure of the Dardanelles campaign to achieve its military objectives? * An ill-thought out plan * Poor command * Bad organisation * Inadequate forces and supplies from Britain By the end of 1914, the war on the western front had ground to a halt. Winston Churchill managed to persuade the war council that a daring attack on Gallipoli and the Dardanelles in Turkey would knock Turkey, one of Germanys main allies, out of the war and allow the allies to supply the Russians through the narrow straight and distract the Turkish from British interests in Egypt as well as opening up a new front and breaking the stalemate that existed in France. However the Gallipoli campaign proved a costly failure contributing little to the outcome of the war. There were many contributing factors which are all linked but the most important were the shortfalls in the plan, which was only half-heartedly supported by London. The inadequate leadership never managed to gain control of a poorly thought out plan and bad organisation was inevitable and the build up of allied troops and supplies was always too little too late, resulting in many men being sacrificed in futile attacks on strong positions. The original plan did not include the use of any troops but after the failure of the navy's plan to take the Dardanelles and sail through to bombard Constantinople, the troops were ordered to take the guns by land. ...read more.


The attitude of the Allied commanders was that high morale and character was sufficient to beat what they considered an inferior force, they did not think it was necessary to research in depth the area or the enemy's strengths and make effective plans. Bad plans and bad commanders combined to make a much worse situation because the commanders pursued bad plans which weren't working and refused to consider alternatives, they also didn't capitalise on their successes for example, when General Stopford launched a surprise attack which landed unopposed at Sulva bay on 6th August, he made the troops reinforce their position on the coast rather than pressing inland and capitalising on their success. The inability of the Commanders to organise effectively contributed significantly to the failure of the operation. Poor command is linked closely with bad organisation because the commanders didn't train their troops well and so they were not prepared well for the landings, for example, many of the soldiers dropped their guns in the water when they were coming off the ships and these guns then seized up because of the salt. If the commanders had been organised enough to train their troops well, this would not have happened. It wasn't only the army, which suffered from poor leadership; the navy were also inadequately lead as can be seen from Admiral de Robecks actions. He withdrew the navy attack which should have been supporting the army by attacking the Turkish forts in the Dardenelles once three of his ships had been blown up by mines. ...read more.


This mean that many of the troops had not been appropriately trained and this lack of commitment at the highest levels of command undermined the plans chance of success from the very beginning. I don't think that it was all necessarily a failure of the British plan but a lot of it was to do with the success of the Turkish defences and the quick thinking of their commanders. The Turkish also coped much better with the difficult conditions, were better organised, and used their resources more effectively. The Turks fought really strongly as they were defending their homeland and learnt more quickly from their mistakes than the British. In conclusion I think all of the reasons were linked together, each contributing to the effect of the others on the campaign but I think an ill thought out plan played a major role in the failure of the attack as it meant that the troops were badly organised and that the supplies and forces were inadequate. The plan also did not include much needed information about the terrain which significantly favoured the defending Turkish troops and a lack of commitment to the plan meant that sufficient supplies, forces and Commanders were not sent. It was a bold plan but ensuring its success was not given a high enough priority and the commanders that were chosen struggled to cope with the new type of warfare. ...read more.

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