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Why did Hindenburg appoint Hitler as Chancellor in 1933?

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Introduction

Lizzi M Homework Task Why did Hindenburg appoint Hitler as Chancellor in 1933? On January 30th 1933, President Hindenburg appointed Hitler as Chancellor and Von-Papen Vice-Chancellor having previously refused him the position in August 1932 after the Nazi's great electoral success. Hitler was to become a dictator and a discriminator, with little care for other people's feelings or emotions so what persuaded Hindenburg to make this surprise appointment? Looking at the event in its historical context, we can see that it was a culmination of long and short-term factors and a built up of events which lead to the decision being made. Some of these factors can be traced back to many years prior to 1933, such as the Treaty of Versailles, which indirectly contributed to Hitler's appointment whereas other events, such as the Nazi's targeting certain groups after the Depression of 1929 had a more direct effect on the political decisions. By 1932 it was almost impossible for the democratic system to work in Germany as the communists and the Nazis controlled the majority of seats in parliament. The result of this was that the two parties could vote together against anything that the government tried to pass - everything from trading to laws and general business could be stopped which was extremely frustrating for the government as they desperately needed to deal with the consequences of the Depression. ...read more.

Middle

to him speak, or heard of his oratory skills and who believed that Hitler was the one who could bring them out of the economic crisis that they were in. Hitler's electioneering techniques were also to gain the Nazi's a broad base of support. It was the built up of this support through his strong leadership that put that Nazis in the strong position that they were in politically in the early 1930s and this position that led the establishment to believe that it could use the Nazi organisation to maintain its power and influence in 1933. The Nazi party had increased in popularity since the German economy had collapsed in the wake of the 1929 Wall Street Crash, which created further divisions on the already disjointed political scene. The rise in unemployment and desperation of many Germans led them to turn to the political extremes such as the Nazi party and thus their support increased. In relation to this, the strains of unemployment issues led to the collapse of the 'Grand Coalition' in Mach 1930 and the establishment of the Br�ning Government which was a key moment in the process of the Nazi rise to power. ...read more.

Conclusion

Because of this, from the early 1930s onwards, Hitler and the Nazi party became courted by bankers businessmen and politicians who hoped that they could use the movement to their advantage and to undermine the Weimar Republic thus protecting their interests and it was these members of the elite who eventually persuaded Hindenburg to appoint Hitler Chancellor. This persuasion topped reasons that Hindenburg himself had to make the appointment, if he let the opportunity pass by then there was the threat of civil war and a revolt of the NSDAP and there was also the situation that he was in with the implication of his family's estate being tied in with the misuse of the funds for the 'help for the east' programme and Hindenburg could well have thought that in appointing Hitler the investigation in to this would be ended. The final tactic of the elite was to appoint Hitler as Chancellor with Von-Papen as Vice-Chancellor alongside him to restrict Hitler's freedom in action and to keep him under control. Hindenburg was aware of the extremist views of Adolf Hitler but believed that, in a cabinet of only three Nazi members, there would be no chance that he would be able to e press these without a majority vote and so made the misjudgement of 'Hitler for Chancellor.' ...read more.

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Response to the question

The student opened the essay with a strong introduction which gave an overview and background to the question asked. However, they failed to formulate a strong conclusion to finish the essay and this was disappointing. They linked their paragraphs well ...

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Response to the question

The student opened the essay with a strong introduction which gave an overview and background to the question asked. However, they failed to formulate a strong conclusion to finish the essay and this was disappointing. They linked their paragraphs well and the structure to the essay served the argument well. The lack of a coherent conclusion flawed the essay deeply as it left the student’s argument ‘hanging in mid-air’. This, consequently, would lower the mark awarded.

Level of analysis

The student links the points made into the argument well and the fluency of the essay was sound. However, at times, there was a lack of further developing the evidence in order to support the points made and consolidate the argument overall. Yet, the level of analysis was very high in this essay and it is fair to say, that for GCSE level, it would contribute to a higher mark for the essay. One flaw I would say here is that the student failed to draw out the significance of the Beer Hall Putsch. It was not necessarily the Treaty of Versailles that made Hitler known in Germany – it was more the Putsch and his subsequent time in prison where he wrote his book ‘My Struggle’. This is what shot him to ‘fame’ and gained the Nazis more awareness. In addressing the problem of a strong conclusion, it is sometimes easiest to leave the introduction and conclusion until after the main body of the essay is written. Then going back to add the introduction and conclusion will be easier and quicker as the student now knows exactly what they are arguing and can give a better overview of the question set in the introduction and conclusion because they have just written their argument out.

Quality of writing

The spelling, grammar and punctuation were average for GCSE level. The sometimes lack of commas, or overuse of commas such that a sentence became three and a half lines (typed) long was most evident in the essay. Perhaps sentence structure in this case could be worked on to further increase the marks. There were two cases of misspelt words: ‘pubic’ instead of ‘public’ and ‘party’ instead of ‘partly’. This evidently shows the lack of checking through the work, which for coursework is absolutely essential. For GCSE level, better would be expected from a history essay for coursework.


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