• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Why did Stalin introduce collectivisation and what were the consequences of his policies?

Extracts from this document...


Why did Stalin introduce collectivisation and what were the consequences of his policies? Stalin believed that changing the organisation of agriculture would prodigiously increase the efficiency of farming. Collectivisation, hence the introduction of collectives, would mean that the mir [peasant strip farms] would be amalgamated and this would enable the sharing of resources such as machinery between the collective farms instead of the small peasant holdings. The mechanised equipment itself would capacitate the extraction of greater surpluses than the peasant strip farms. Hence, this would allow for economies of scale due to the lower costs per unit, which would serve as the essence to the increase in agrarian efficiency. Similarly, the collectivisation of farms would enable efficiency for the human resources of Stalin, such that fewer communist officials would be required to handle the collective farms, and there would be more direct supervision. This would mean it would be easier to control any opposition and to isolate any illegal activity, such as the hiding of grain. ...read more.


Due to collectivisation, the instigation of two different types of farms ensued; sovkhozy and kolkhozy. However, one similarity between the two was that the workers, called sovkhozniks and kolkhozniks respectively, were remunerated at a flat rate, set targets and had specified procurement quotas by Gosplan; hence, if they did not attain the targets, they would have no grain. Sovkhozy, which literally means "Soviet household", were state farms that were predominantly located around cities and the land was usually stemmed from the land sequestered from the church and other large estates. Furthermore, they were generally specialised and thus very few were set up, as it ascertained high expenditure due to requirements of the best machinery. Kolkhozy, which literally means, "Collective household", were the collective farms and were formed via the amalgamation of the individual holdings of peasants, the majority of which were previously small strip farms called mir. The state supplied these collective farms with seeds, fertilisers, as well as tractors and agrarian machinery from a state enterprise called a Machine Tractor Station, however many of them did not function efficiently. ...read more.


The kulaks were cognisant of the fact that their land would be sequestered by force, however they retaliated against the state by smashing edifices and slaughtering livestock. Through this and bad weather, 1/4 of the entire nation's livestock perished. Another action they took was carrying out a scorched earth policy in order to prevent the state from taking their crops. This was a major contributing factor to the famine between 1932 and 1933, where 7 million were killed and an area which was acutely affected was Ukraine, which they call Holodomor. However in the long term, collectivisation proved to be a success to a certain extent. Grain production rose to nearly 95 million tonnes in 1939. This was an astonishing improvement and it really improved the worker's health and quality of life. In 1928 the Soviet Union produced 73 million tonnes of grain. By 1933 it had dipped to 69 million tonnes and it was not until 1940 that production reached 95 million tonnes. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Russia, USSR 1905-1941 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Russia, USSR 1905-1941 essays

  1. The Policies of Joseph Stalin 1928 1953

    decided the fate of the accused men then there was no justice. The men were not given a fair trial and not allowed to fight for their cases. The stenographer is also Stalin; this shows he controlled the official records which is accurate because in the Soviet Union he did.

  2. Purges and Hysteria in the Soviet Union

    Twenty-one Bolsheviks in all were tried, accused of belonging to a rightist Trotskyite bloc. They were accused of having killed Gorky (who would have opposed the trials and had conveniently died in 1936). They were accused of attempting to kill Lenin in 1918 and of trying to give away the

  1. Consider this judgement on the consequences of Stalin's leadership of the Soviet Union 1928 ...

    Once again, despite an almost unbelievable increase in industrial production, the set targets were not met, the exception being steel, in which the aim for 1 7million tons was exceeded by 0.7tons.

  2. The blance sheet for russia.

    It is interesting to note that members of the Workers' Opposition, a semi-anarcho-syndicalist tendency present at the Congress, also joined the attacking forces. This nails yet another lie, which attempts to establish a clumsy amalgam between Kronstadt - anarchism - Workers' Opposition - three things that have absolutely nothing in common.

  1. 'The Soviet Sate was established at the expense of the Soviet people' Examine the ...

    Their most famous achievement was to drive a canal 500 kilometres from the White Sea to the Baltic Sea. The camps were supervised by a special department of the secret police called Gulag. WE know about them mainly through the works of the Soviet dissident, Alexander Solzhenitsyn, who spent many years in them.

  2. Russia 1905-1945 Stalin - man or monster - source based questions

    In this case, Stalin is the one who wrote this source, so we may expect that he won�t criticise himself, neither tell the truth of the real version of what happened in Siberia with that comrade. As in most of the Sources, Stalin appears to be like a heroe who everyone must congratulate and adore.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work