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Why Did The Tzar Survive The 1905 Revolution And Not That of February 1917?

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Introduction

Why Did The Tzar Survive The 1905 Revolution And Not That of February 1917? In 1905 the Tzar was Nicholas II, an absolute ruler with no parliament. He had advisers but they had no power. All political parties opposing the Tzar were illegal. However, opposition to the Tzar was growing in the country. Two major events led to the revolution of 1905. Firstly, in 1904, Japan invaded Manchuria to expand its empire. Russia assumed that Japan would be easily defeated. To their horror Japan was a much greater enemy than they thought and Russia lost the war. This was very embarrassing especially for the Tzar who had used this war to distract the Russian public from the problems at home. The defeat convinced the people of the need for change as the Tzar was taking the country to ruin. Secondly, within a month of defeat, protestors gathered in the capital on 22nd January 1905. Led by father Gapon their aim was to march to the winter palace and present the Tzar with a petition. Neither the protest nor the petition was aimed at overthrowing the Tzar. It was merely to tell the Tzar about that the people were starving and how, for many it was better to die than live. ...read more.

Middle

The transport system was so poor that food meant for the army rotted in sidings instead of feeding the frontline. This meant that the soldiers in the retreating frontline were becoming more miserable because they were getting no food. Soldiers began to desert and lost loyalty to the Tzar. Industry was used to manufacture equipment for the army so there was nothing for the peasants to buy with the money they got from selling their crops. Therefore farmers started to grow food for themselves with no surplus because there was no point. In March 1917 severe strikes in the Petrograd factories caused industry to come to a halt. Good weather encouraged protesters onto the streets and the soldiers were ordered to fire upon the demonstrators. Many soldiers were peasants and were starving in similar conditions and held the same beliefs as the protesters. By the 12th the army supported the riots and many government buildings were ransacked in Petrograd. This revolution was far more successful than in 1905. In 1905 the Tzar had something to fall back on. The Russian public had no idea of his thoughts. They had nothing in the past to base it on. When he created a democratic parliament he pleased the masses. ...read more.

Conclusion

They decided Nicholas II was the last Tzar to rule. In this essay you can see that the Tzar was put in an impossible position. This does not mean that the Tzar was not to blame, he made many mistakes. Leaving his wife to run the country was a bad idea. Firstly the Tzarina was German and Russia was at war with Germany. Also she was under Rasputin's influence who she thought was a miracle worker because she thought he cured her son of haemophilia. The government was run under Rasputin's influence which enraged the country further. The Tzar couldn't help this dilemma because he went to control the army directly. Now if there was any problem with the army the Tzar had no-one else to blame but himself. Then he tried to dissolve the Duma which was the only thing that people still partly respected him for and when he tried to dissolve it all the middle classes that were undecided on the revolution joined it. He put himself in an impossible position after the 1905 revolution. The repression was meant to teach the country a lesson in 1905 but unfortunately for the Tzar this made the protesters determined to win. The Tzar made major political mistakes in the aftermath of the 1905 revolution, leading up to and continuing into 1917. This, combined with the quality leadership of the 1917 revolution ensured its success instead of 1905's failure. ...read more.

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