• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

WHY HAD INTERNATIONAL PEACE COLLAPSED BY 1939?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

KEY QUESTION 3: WHY HAD INTERNATIONAL PEACE COLLAPSED BY 1939? Focus Points 1. What were the long-term consequences of the peace treaties of 1919-23? 2. What were the consequences of the failures of the League in the 1930s? 3. How far was Hitler's foreign policy to blame for the outbreak of war in 1939? 4. Was the policy of appeasement justified? 5. How important was the Nazi-Soviet Pact? 6. Why did Britain and France declare war on Germany in September 1939? Specified Content The collapse of international order in the 1930s; the increasing militarism of Germany, Italy and Japan; Hitler's foreign policy to 1939; the Saar, remilitarization of the Rhineland, Austria, Czechoslovakia and Poland; the Nazi-Soviet Pact, appeasement and the outbreak of war in September 1939. Focus Point 1 - What were the long-term consequences of the peace treaties of 1919-23? German Anger In the 1920s the Germans called the Treaty of Versailles the 'Diktat', the 'dictated peace'. They resented: 1 the loss of so much territory, especially the splitting of East Prussia from the rest of Germany. 2 The loss of resources. The treaty took away 74% of their iron ore production and 26% of their coal. 3 Foreign occupation of the Rhineland and Saar 4 Having to accept 'war guilt' and pay reparations. ...read more.

Middle

Clearest example of appeasement, and of how it had failed. See below 1939, Nazi Soviet Pact Surprise agreement between the USSR and Germany not to attack each other. See below. Opened way to invasion of Poland 1939, Invasion of Poland Britain and France declare war on Germany. WWII begins. Focus Point 4 - Was the policy of appeasement justified? What was appeasement? A policy which aimed to prevent aggressors from starting wars by finding out what they really wanted and then agreeing to those demands which seemed reasonable. Followed by Britain and France for most of the 1930s when neither was willing to risk another war with an aggressive power. Britain and appeasement Most politicians thought it was in Britain's interest to avoid becoming entangled in Europe's affairs again. Most British people supported the policy of appeasement. Winston Churchill was one of the few politicians to speak out against it. Arguments For Appeasement 1. The Empire was more important than Europe. The Japanese threatened to attack British colonies in the Far East. Britain could not afford also to fight Germany in the West. 2. British armed forces were not sufficiently large to fight another major war. Britain needed time to rearm. 3. To fight a successful war against Germany, Britain needed the support of the USA and Dominions such as Australia. But they wanted to stay out of European affairs. ...read more.

Conclusion

1. Stalin: a) realised France and Britain were not serious about military talks b) could not face Germany alone c) could not manage to fight in Europe as well as Japan on the Manchurian border d) wanted to take land in Poland 2. Hitler needed a deal. The deadline for invading Poland was close. Neither trusted the other, but it was convenient for the moment. Focus Point 6 - Why did Britain and France declare war on Germany in September 1939? Simply put Britain and France declared war on Germany on 3 September to honour its guarantee to defend Poland, following its invasion by Hitler. Hitler had believed that as before, Britain and France would not got to war over some distant land, but he miscalculated. On a more complex level war is declared because of a number of factors: 1. How the resentment over the Treaty of Versailles led to the beliefs and plans of Hitler that would lead to aggression. 2. How the failure of the League to stop aggression and uphold the treaty encouraged Hitler and others to be more aggressive. And how the weakness of the League encouraged Britain and France to follow an alternative policy in appeasement. 3. How Hitler in particular gradually undid the terms of the treaty in his foreign policy. 4. How Britain and France's policy of appeasement encouraged Hitler to be bolder, how they undermined the League. 5. How others such as Stalin contributed to bringing war closer. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE History Projects section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE History Projects essays

  1. Stalin and Hitler: Differences and Similarities

    But both taught children their ideas in school, and outside school. But Hitler concentrated more on children than Stalin did, because under Hitler there were man youth organisations, while under Stalin there weren't any, or just few.

  2. Nazi Germany

    Paragraph 7 This law is valid on the date of its publication, but Paragraph 3 will be valid only as of 1 January 1936. Nuremberg, 15 September 1935 National Party Liberty Congress Der Fuhrer and Reich Chancellor [Signed] Adolf Hitler Source: http://www.nytimes.com/1999/07/04/weekinreview/word-for-word-nuremberg-laws-display-los-angeles-legal-foreshadowing-nazi-horror.html?pagewanted=1 THE REICH CITIZENS LAW The Reichstag has unanimously

  1. What were the problems faced by Chancellor Ebert and his government immediately after the ...

    Ruhr could not be allowed to continue, as the policy of passive resistance was bankrupting an already heavily burdened Germany. By ordering the workers to return to work, Germany was able to once again resume production in the Ruhr and create a flow of income for the workers from a different source.

  2. Describe the changes in life in Germany between 1930 and 1939

    Jobs also became available in these new food industries. The chart below shows the decrease in unemployment during Hitler's first years: This statistical source provides the reader with an approximate look at the decrease in unemployment. It must be noted that the scale on the x-axis changes from every four years to every one year.

  1. "Why did war on the Western Front last so long?"

    Clark says that 'their one thought was to have more men, more guns and more ammunition than the enemy'. This plan was so 'if they couldn't win a decisive battle, they could defeat their enemies by forcing them to use up all their reserves'.

  2. Gallic war

    * Antony was probably unaware of war between Octavian and his brother/wife until it was over. * Antony decided to return to Italy in 40, but was prevented from landing at Brundisium by Octavian's troops. Civil war appeared imminent. Treaty of Brundisium, 40 ?

  1. My main question is : How did Mussolini rise to power in ...

    The PSI was overall, a revisory party but had also a Marxist part. Mussolini ditched with the Marxist and turned his back to revisory socialism. Benito got away to Switzerland because he wanted to avoid his conscription. He went to Switzerland without any idea what to do.

  2. Causes and consequences of the English Civil War

    Councillors and judges must take an oath to maintain certain Parliamentary statutes. 12. All judges and officers approved of by Parliament shall hold their posts on condition of good behaviour. 13. The justice of Parliament shall apply to all law-breakers, whether they are inside the country or have fled.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work